INFORMATION COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES AND ELECTRONIC (DIGITAL) CUSTOMS OF THE WORLD CUSTOMS ORGANIZATION

Sergei Mozer

РУССКИЙ

Sergei MozerPh.D. at law

Deputy Head of Division of Advanced Customs Technologies, Department of Customs Legislation of the Eurasian Economic CommissionContact Person for Communication with the World Customs Organization.

Senior Researcher in the Research Institute of the Russian Customs Academy.

e-mail: moser@teloneum.net

Web: http://customs-academy.net/?page_id=10398

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Published: Gaps in Russian legislation. — № 7 (December). — 2019. — pages 159-168. © S.V. Mozer, 2019

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Abstract

Purpose

To analyze the formation of the legal institute of digital (electronic) customs of the World Customs Organization in within the framework of the development of information and communication technologies.

Design/methodology/approach

The research article is devoted to the issues of improving customs regulation instruments. The subject of the research is the Institute of Digital Customs and Information and Communication Technologies (ICT). It is comprehensively examined the concept (term) of information communication technologies within the framework of the institute of electronic (digital) customs, the Border ICT Solutions Mapping Tool is analyzed, the characteristics of electronic customs within this Tool are presented. The attention is paid to the WCO Technology Network (TeN) of the World Customs Organization.

Social implications

The development of the digital customs institute, as well as its introduction into the customs legislation of the WCO Member Countries, is aimed at optimizing customs operations and simplifying trade procedures.

Practical meaning

The results of the study are of interest to the Customs block of the Eurasian Economic Commission (EEC), can be used to organize the work of the Information Management                     Sub-Committee, Permanent Technical Committee of the World customs Organization, in the context of the EEC — WCO international customs cooperation. The article is recommended to researchers, as well as experts from the Customs Administrations of the EEU Member States, whose activities are related to the improvement of customs regulation, the modernization of the digital customs institute, as well as international customs law.

Originality/value

The research material is based on an analysis of the practical aspects of the WCO’s activities and is a continuation of scientific and practical publications on the development of the digital customs institute within the framework of the WCO’s activities.

Keywords: The World Customs Organization, the WCO, the Eurasian Economic Union, EEU, the Eurasian Economic Commission, EEC, e-Customs, digital Customs, customs regulation, customs administration, international customs law, customs, information communication technologies.

 

  1. The concept of information communication technology

The study of the institute of electronic and digital customs showed that the World Customs Organization, in fact, puts an equal sign between such a customs

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and the concept of «information communication technology». In our opinion, this is only one of the points of view which has not yet been confirmed at the scientific level.

It is believed that the use of information systems and technologies in customs administration allows us to simplify and speed up the implementation of customs operations on customs control, including through the use of electronic forms of declaration and risk management system, accumulate information about participants in foreign economic activity and other persons, carry out prompt information exchange with interested persons, other state authorities, foreign customs authorities, in the manner and on the conditions established by legislation.[1] According to Charushnikova E.O. and Belousova Yu.L., the use of modern information technologies allows to ensure the quality and availability of customs services provided to a wide range of participants in foreign economic activities; significantly reduces the time of their submission and the cost of transferring, storing, processing information; automates certain processes relating to the interaction of participants of foreign economic activity with customs as well as the Customs service itself with other executive authorities.[2]

So what is information communication technology? Let’s consider this phenomenon through the prism of scientific publications.

It is necessary to emphasize that the WCO IT Guide for Executives[3] does not contain a definition of the term «information technology» or «information communication technology». Obviously its developers need to take into account the importance of a systematic approach to the formation of a conceptual apparatus, including for the institution of digital customs.

Danielyan A.A., Lyubkina E.A. and Khanov R.M.[4] identify the following definitions of the term «information technology»:

  • processes, methods of searching, processing, providing, disseminating information and methods for implementing such processes and methods;[5]
  • techniques, methods of application of computer equipment in the performance of the function of collecting, storing, processing, transmitting and using data;[6]
  • resources required for processing, storing and distributing information.[7]

According to the Federal Law of the Russian Federation «On Information, Information Technologies and Information Protection» dated July 27, 2006 № 149-ФЗ, «information technologies» are processes, methods for searching, collecting, storing, processing, providing, disseminating information and methods the implementation of such processes and methods [paragraph 2 of article 2].

When analyzing the legal aspects of IT implementation in customs regulation, S. B. Goncharov and Alibekov S.T. consider information technology as a process using a combination of means and methods of collecting, processing and transmitting data to obtain new quality information about the state of an object, process or phenomenon.[8]

Author of the textbook «Information Technologies in Customs Activities», Aksenov I.A. gives the following definition of the term «information technology».

Information technology is a set of methods for processing disparate source data into reliable and operational information for decision-making using hardware and software in order to achieve optimal parameters of the control object.[9]

Barandeev, T.A. draws attention that information technology is one of the main directions of improving the activities of Customs authorities.[10] Voronov A.M. believes that the general term «information technology» in its content means a system of means and methods of working with information to obtain new quality information about the state of an object, process or event, and in relation to the stated topic — information technology should be understood a set of methods for collecting, processing (analyzing), evaluating and protecting social and legal information in the process of developing projects for management decisions.[11]

According to the same author, information technologies form a structural element and constitute an organic part of a more general category – «technology of management» which creates, according to B.I. Sazonov and A.P. Gerasimov, on the one hand, «a way to implement a complex management process, dividing it into a system of consecutive interconnected procedures and operations …», and on the other, «a system of rules and regulatory documents».[12]

In turn, Gorbenko V.M. and Malakhov S.M. put forward the thesis that Information technology is a complex of interrelated scientific terms:

  • methods for the effective organization of labor of people involved in processing and storing information using computer technology;
  • methods of organization and interaction with people and production equipment;
  • practical applications as well as social, economic and cultural problems associated with all of this.[13]

The mentioned authors rightly point out that the use of information systems and technologies in the activities of Customs authorities allows us to solve many problems associated with the effective implementation of customs regulation. Among them there are such tasks as

  • simplification and acceleration of customs operations and customs control;
  • application of RMS;
  • accumulation of information about economic operators;
  • maintenance for customs purposes of databases and registers of entities engaged in foreign trade operations and providing services in the field of foreign trade activities;
  • implementation of information exchange between Customs authorities and other controlling state authorities as well as foreign Customs administrations.[14]

         Sergeeva I.A. and Petrova Yu.O have a similar understanding of information technology. They believe that information technology is understood as a system of methods, software and hardware combined into a holistic technological system for

 

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the targeted collection, processing, accumulation, storage, search, distribution and provision of documented information to the user.[15]

         Lepa T.P., the author of the textbook «Information Technologies in the Customs Sphere», by information technology considers the system of methods for collecting, accumulating, storing, searching and processing information based on the use of computer technology. In her opinion, in IT both the subject and the product of labor is information, and the instrument of labor is the means of computing technology and communications.[16]

         Information technology is an organizational and technical term that refers to the entire complex of the latest interconnected and interdependent technologies, with the help of which information is removed from management objects, and information flows are collected, processed and transmitted.[17] The main task of customs information technology, notes Lepa T.P., is the management of information within the customs system.

         One of the most interesting studies of the analyzed area is the publication of Saenko V.V., Kushtapina S.A., Garbuz V.V., Chernykh V.V., Zybina E.V. «The main directions of development of information and communication technologies in the Customs authorities of the Russian Federation».[18] The authors of a scientific article note that information and communication technologies used in the activities of Customs authorities ensure the development of foreign economic activity and further improvement of the quality of customs administration. In their opinion, the main directions of ICT development for the perspective period until 2030 need to be developed in order to substantiate and timely organize the planning of activities and activities aimed at creating new ICTs and their implementation in Customs authorities, ensuring the functioning of data transmission channels, maintaining in working order information technical equipment and in the current state of the used information and software.[19]

         In their research, Russian customs officials mention a list of 28 regulatory acts of Russia that regulate the use of information technologies and information interaction in the field of customs. Among them there are the methodological recommendations

  • on preparing plans for informatization of state bodies, including the form of a plan for informatization of state bodies;
  • on the organization of the project management system for informatization activities in state bodies;
  • on the preparation of reports on the implementation of plans for informatization of government agencies, including the form of a report on the implementation of plans for informatization of government agencies;
  • for the executive bodies of state power of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation to implement the accounting and classification of information systems and components of the information and telecommunication infrastructure.

         In the same scientific study the indicators are highlighted that are planned to be achieved in the framework of the implementation of the main directions of ICT development for the perspective period.[20]

             Russian specialists identify the following basic principles of the main directions of ICT development for the long term:

  • improving institutional conditions with minimal direct regulation;
  • prioritization of state support;
  • creation of a scientific and technological reserve and new high-tech products in promising areas of ICT development.[21]

             With regard to ICT infrastructure, customs experts distinguish it from the following elements:

  • computer equipment with installed information and software;
  • information security tools;
  • means of switching, control and transmission of information, connected

by communication lines and data transmission channels;

  • uninterrupted guaranteed power supply systems;
  • systems for maintaining temperature and humidity conditions, integrated security systems (access control, burglar and fire alarms, video surveillance);
  • fire extinguishing systems that provide for the implementation of the functions assigned to the Customs authorities in the field of customs and the functions that ensure the activities of the Customs authorities, the provision of public services.[22]

         The authors of the aforementioned study draw attention to the fact that the information and technical departments of the Customs authorities are responsible for the performance (workability) of computing equipment with installed information and software tools, information security tools and systems, switching tools, information management and transmission, for the operation of integrated security systems, communication lines and data channels.[23]

         Studying the role of information technology in the customs field, Pletukhina A.A. and Khvostova I.P. cite the following types of customs information technology that require complex automation:

  • customs clearance and customs control in trade and non-trade turnover;
  • control the delivery of goods;
  • maintaining customs statistics of foreign trade activities, forming data for official publications and information support of federal and local authorities of customs statistics of foreign trade;
  • regional customs statistics of foreign trade and data formation for publication;
  • calculation of customs payments;
  • customs-banking currency control of foreign exchange earnings from the export of goods and the calculation of payments in foreign currency;
  • control over the observance of measures of non-tariff regulation of foreign economic activity;
  • regulation of foreign trade barter transactions;
  • monitoring the implementation of decisions of Customs authorities;
  • continuous analysis of the activities and control of Customs authorities of operational services of the customs administration, regional customs administrations and customs authorities;

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  • customs control of goods from the controlled list;
  • information support of the activities of the law enforcement devisions of the Customs authorities.[24]

         As part of the implementation of the reform of customs administration, noted Polukhin I.V. and Forikova A.O., the following new information technologies are being introduced in the field of customs:

  • electronic declaration;
  • preliminary informing;
  • remote release;
  • automatic registration and automatic release of customs declarations;
  • electronic declaration of the transit procedure.[25]
  1. ICT AND E-CUSTOMS

2.1. General characteristics of the Border ICT Solutions Mapping Tool

         To understand the ICT solutions in the formation of the digital customs institution, we turned to a tool called «Border ICT Solutions Mapping Tool».[26] Its developers note that in selecting a border clearance ICT system that best fits the needs of a country’s border processing and customs requirements, governments face the time — consuming task of extensive research and analysis in order to examine the world of options offered by ICT solution providers. This includes specifically examining the scope and automated functions of each system, even before one begins to match a solution with the country’s particular range of needs. The ICT Border Solutions Mapping Tool was developed by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), through the funded TCBoost project, and the World Bank Group (WBG) in an effort to survey the available options in the use of ICT systems in facilitating «trading across borders» and provide countries and users with key information necessary in order to make informed policy and procurement decisions.[27] 

             In conducting the survey, TCBoost’s approach was based on the following assumptions:

  • Modern border management encompasses more than «customs» automation. Border management involves managing the regulatory environment for 20 — 60 in some cases over 100 agencies with legitimate mandates for goods crossing the border.
  • The concept of «forms» in automated border clearance of goods is surpassed by the focus on data elements. The data needed by the various border agencies is often replicated as many as 40 times in various forms.
  • The processing of electronic data in the border clearance of goods is likely to use multiple, interfaced systems even within the customs as the primary border agency.

             In 2010, USAID and the WBG conducted a functional mapping survey in order to inventory the functional elements of border clearance ICT systems presently available and used by government agencies, primarily by Customs, for the clearance of goods across borders in conformance to border regulations. This inventorying considered key functions of well-established products as well as new types of systems in the pipeline. The list of survey participants continues to grow, and the results presented in this tool will be updated to encompass as many providers as possible in this ever- growing market. [28]

             The results of this survey are encompassed in the online ICT Border Solutions Mapping Tool, which allows to:

  • Select the various functions a government is considering for automation through your ICT Systems Procurement, and
  • View the range of current providers/solutions that offer those features.

         After receiving the results, the user of this tool can view the countries in which the supplier is currently implementing the selected solutions as well as a direct link to the supplier’s web page, to begin an in-depth review of his proposals. The developers of this tool then propose that before the start of the actual procurement process, the authorized body familiarizes itself with the Best Practices Guidelines for Procurement of Information and Communication Technologies.[29]

         Let’s consider how the ICT solution mapping tool at the border is linked to the digital customs institute. First of all, we note that the analyzed tool does not use the term «digital customs». Obviously this is due to the fact that the developers of ICT solutions to a greater degree operate with the concept of «electronic customs»; there are no scientific and practical developments, tools of the international customs community, which allow us to establish a clear boundary between electronic and digital customs.

         So, the analyzed tool identifies 15 functions (blocks) that, by decision of the Customs administration, can be automated:

  1. Information Management.
  2. Pre-Import.
  3. Declarations, clearance and inspection.
  4. Risk Management.
  5. Authorized Economic Operator.
  6. Revenue.
  7. Transit.
  8. Enforcement.
  9. Declaration.
  10. Audit.
  11. Investigations.
  12. Appeals.
  13. Global Cooperation.
  14. Quality Management.

 

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  1. Systems Support.

         The analyzed «Border ICT Solutions Mapping Tool » gives 38 ICT solutions that have been developed by various companies (suppliers, developers) as well as countries that apply them in practice. For example, among these solutions «ASYCUDA World», «Preliminary information about cargoes», «Electronic Customs», etc. are mentioned. Each of the solutions has a link to the developer’s information resource. For example, such companies as Intrasoft International[30] and SIVECO Romania[31] are engaged in ICT solutions in the field of «electronic customs».

         It is important to note that each of the 38 ICT solutions is mapped in the context of the above 15 functions (blocks). In addition, each of the blocks is divided into characteristics (features). The developers of the analyzed instrument identified 90 characteristics. For example, the following characteristics are listed for the «information management» function (block):

(1) public searchable tariff table; (2) searchable tariff table for tariff classification available by Internet;  (3) intuitive help for tariff classification; (4) public access to all agency regulations; (5) public access to all trade agreements; (6) public access to new regulation tariff classified pre-issuance; (7) pre-issuance tariff application determination; (8) public access to all tariffs, taxes and fees; (9) future date search for tariff rate and regulations; (10) submission point for classification inquiry; (11) submission point for binding ruling; (12) public access data base of binding rulings and court decisions; (13) submission point for appeal; (14) public access to regulation commentaries; (15) electronic forms data base; (16) newsletter to public; (17) updated border instructions.

It should be noted that the ICT Solution Mapping Tool at the border contains explanations for each of their characteristics, named in 15 functions (blocks). For example, «open access to all rules of regulatory authorities» (see clause 4 above) means the «Table of searching all the rules for all controlling authorities applied during import, export or transit through one Internet application».

The tool analyzed by us is interactive and allows you to compare quickly the ICT solutions under investigation in one coordinate system by analyzing their characteristics. For example, you can compare the «Electronic Customs» with «ASYCUDA World» in the context of mapped 90 characteristics. If such a characteristic relates to the ICT solution, then a «Y» letter is put in front of it, which means «Yes».

Thanks to this Instrument, the Customs administration that deals with the issues of automation of customs operations, business processes can quickly get acquainted with the existing (ready-made) products (solutions, developments) in the field of ICT for a specific institution in the field of customs regulation.

Without a doubt, the studied Border ICT Solutions Mapping Tool is a matter of scientific and practical interest and deserves special attention in the context of research devoted to development of digital customs. In our opinion, this tool is much more useful and interesting in professional sense than Bali Agreement.

2.2. Characteristics of e-customs in the framework of the Border ICT Solutions Mapping Tool

 

We list the main characteristics of e-customs, named the Border ICT Solutions Mapping Tool.

         Note: we highlight the positions in italics, that the developer — Intrasoft International does not apply to ICT «electronic customs».

Information Management

Public searchable tariff table.

Searchable tariff table for tariff classification available by Internet.

Intuitive help for tariff classification.

Public access to all agency regulations.

Public access to all trade agreements.

Public access to new regulation tarrif classified pre-issuance.

Pre-issuance tariff application determination.

Public access to all tariffs, taxes and fees.

Future date search for tariff rate and regulations.

Submission point for classification inquiry.

Submission point for binding ruling.

Public access data base of binding rulings and court decisions.

Submission point for appeal.

Public access to regulation commentaries.

Electronic forms data base.

Newsletter to public.

Updated border instructions.

Public access to all agency regulations.

Searchable table of all regulations for all agencies applied at the time of import, export or transit through a single Internet application.

Pre-Import

B2G data submission for permits.

G2G permits sharing (national level).

G2B permit approvals.

Declarations, clearance and inspection

Automated Manifest acceptance.

Automated Manifest processing.

Declaration filing electronically.

G2G & G2B clearance approvals for licenses.

Calculation of all duties taxes and fees.

Full HS and national tariff compliant.

Customs work assignment management.

Multi-agency clearance management.

WTO valuation compliance management.

Data interface with tax systems.

Risk Management

Risk directives from external estimates.

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Risk analysis and forecasting.

Trade participant identification .

Valuation histories .

Automatic recalculation of risk level.

Inspection Selection Management.

Data mining .

G2G risk assessment sharing (national).

Intelligence support.

Authorized Economic Operator

AEO program management.

AEO audit tracking.

AEO compliance feed to risk management.

AEO confidence level assessments.

AEO Program cost analysis.

Revenue

Revenue collection and reporting.

B2G payment duties and taxes.

Transit

Location of transiting trucks.

Bonded goods management.

Temporary Import/Export management.

Transit tracking and management.

Internal transport tracking / management.

Transit guarantees insurance (national).

Bonded goods warehouse management.

Enforcement

Person and vehicle tracking and lookouts.

Arrest reporting and tracking.

Search inventory controls.

Declaration

Seizure and Penalty Management.

Penalty issuance.

Penalty tracking.

Penalty action closure.

Penalty related cost tracking.

Seizure issuance.

Seizure tracking for status.

Seizure cost tracking.

Seizure inventory controls.

Audit

Audit Selection and Management.

Audit record keeping.

Audit result reporting.

Audit cost tracking.

Enforcement audit / Investigation tracking.

Compliance measurement audit selection.

Investigations

Investigations Management.

Investigations reporting.

Investigations cost tracking.

Appeals

Appeals process management.

Global Cooperation

Multinational transit bond issuance.

Multinational transit bond clearance.

G2G permits sharing (international level).

Transit guarantees (multi-national).

G2G risk assessment sharing (international).

Quality Management

Tracking of trade statistics.

Tracking of Key Performace Indicators.

Data for process and workflow designs.

Systems Support

Multi lingual data.

Multi lingual screens.

Security features to track system changes.

Reusable data.

Legally binding public information.

2.3. WCO Technology Network

Studying the use of ICT in the context of the institution of digital (electronic) customs, it is worth noting that on June 16, 2014 the WCO announced the launch of its new Technology Network (TeN).[32] Largely based on the WCO’s former Databank on Advanced Technology,[33] the new TeN aims at becoming a leading technology hub for Customs and other border agencies, technology solution providers, international organizations and all other relevant stakeholders in border management.[34]

The WCO invited companies to register their products free of charge, thereby gaining large exposure among the WCO Members and other border agencies. Those interested in joining the TeN should connect to the network web address[35]  and create an account. Once their request is validated, they will receive a login and password to access and manage corporate and product information.  

Thanks to this platform, Customs administrations can search and view information on the latest technological solutions and products available on the market. The new platform also includes two separate discussion forums that are not available to the general public. The first is limited to customs and other border agencies, which allows them to exchange views on technological expertise and future developments. In addition to regulatory bodies, the second discussion forum also welcomes registered companies, giving users and suppliers the opportunity to interact.[36]

In essence, the Technology Network (TeN) is the only communication platform for customs and other border agencies, technology companies, international organizations and relevant stakeholders to share experiences and information about technologies related to border management. The analyzed platform is very useful because it helps to get acquainted quickly with ICT solutions implemented in various WCO Member states. For reference, we note that 32 international organizations are partners of this WCO technology platform.

To date, this database of ITC solutions includes the development of 48 countries. At the same time, the system allows to group ICT solutions in the following areas:

  • Detection of fissile material.

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  • Customs clearance systems.
  • Risk management systems.
  • Reading documents / their confirmation.
  • Equipment for scanning.
  • Equipment for testing and detection.
  • Equipment for tracking.
  • Intelligence system.
  • Tools / security equipment.
  • Technology supporting standards.

   It should be noted that the Technology Network (TeN) is convenient to use and is an excellent source for studying ready-made developments and ICT solutions in the field of customs administration. In our opinion, this tool, created on the WCO platform, is very useful for the development of the digital customs institute.

                CONCLUSIONS.

               Based on the foregoing, we formulate the conclusions.

  1. The use of information systems and technologies in customs regulation allows to simplify and accelerate the performance of customs operations; significantly reduces their time as well as the cost of transferring, storing, processing information; automates individual processes relating to the interaction of economic operators with customs as well as customs with other regulatory agencies.
  2. The study of scientific publications allowed us to systematize the following approaches to the term «information technology»:
  • a system of methods for collecting, accumulating, storing, searching and processing information based on the use of computer technology;
  • organizational and technical term for the whole complex of the latest interconnected and interdependent technologies, with the help of which information is removed from control objects, the collection, processing and transmission of information flows is carried out;
  • processes, methods of searching, processing, providing, disseminating information and methods for implementing such processes and methods;
  • a process using a combination of means and methods of collecting, processing and transmitting data to obtain new quality information about the state of an object, process or event;
  • techniques, methods of application of computer equipment in the performance of the function of collecting, storing, processing, transmitting and using data;
  • resources required for processing, storing and distributing information;
  • a set of methods for processing separate data into reliable and timely information for decision-making using hardware and software in order to achieve optimal parameters of the control object;
  • direction of improving the activities of Customs authorities;
  • a system of means and methods of working with information to obtain new quality information about the state of an object, process or phenomenon;
  • a system of methods, software and hardware combined into a holistic technological system for the targeted collection, processing, accumulation, storage, retrieval, distribution and provision of documented information to the user;
  • an automated system of means that use a certain set of methods for collecting, processing (analyzing), evaluating and protecting social and legal information in the process of developing draft management decisions;
  • information technology is a complex of interrelated scientific terms:
  • methods of effective organization of labor of people involved in processing and storing information using computer technology;
  • methods of organizing and interacting with people and production equipment;
  • practical applications as well as social, economic and cultural problems associated with all of this.
  1. In our understanding, ICT is a comprehensive management tool, a system of methods and ways for collecting, accumulating, storing, searching and processing information. This is a tool for decision making by the Customs administration. In this regard, it is difficult to call ICT as customs or digital customs.
  2. To date, the WCO instruments do not contain the definition of the term «electronic» and «digital customs». The WCO IT Guide for Executives does not contain the definition of the term «information technology» or «information communication technology».

If the WCO actually identifies digital customs with ICT, is there any reason for this? What really should be understood by term «digital customs»? Can it be argued that the above definitions are digital customs? Does «digital customs» encompass the terms «information technology tools», «ICT infrastructure» and «information and software tools»?

To date, the international customs community has not provided any position that allows us to unequivocally answer the questions posed. The necessity to form a conceptual apparatus in the analyzed area is obvious to us as well as the development of an independent WCO instrument for digital customs as well as the modernization of the Organization’s current tools in terms of the development of the digital customs institution.

These issues, of course, should be voiced at the sessions of the WCO working bodies, which competence is the development of the digital customs and information and communication technologies.

  1. In information technology, the object of impact (subject) and the result (product of labor) is information, and the instrument of labor is information technology tools (computer equipment and communications). In turn, by term «information» should be understood data (сведения — Russian), regardless of the form of their presentation.
  2. The use of information systems and technologies in customs regulation allows to solve many problems associated with the effective implementation of customs administration (simplification and acceleration of customs operations and customs control; the use of RMS; the accumulation of information about economic

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 operators; dictation for customs purposes of databases and registries of subjects carrying out foreign trade operations and providing services in the field of foreign economic activity, the implementation of information exchange between Customs authorities and other controlling state authorities, as well as foreign Customs administrations.

  1. The Institute of ICT in Russia is regulated by a variety of legal instruments (28), among them there are a number of guidelines that, in our opinion, are a matter of interest for the development of ICT in the field of customs regulation.
  2. Within the framework of the study of the best practices of customs administration in the WCO Member states in the field of ICT development, the developments of specialists of the Customs service of Russia are of interest. In particular, they highlighted the indicators that are planned to be achieved as part of the implementation of the main directions of ICT development for the prospective period until 2030.
  3. The ICT infrastructure includes the following elements:
  • computer equipment with installed information and software;
  • information security tools;
  • means of switching, control and transmission of information, connected by communication lines and data transmission channels;
  • uninterrupted guaranteed power supply systems;
  • systems for maintaining temperature and humidity conditions, integrated security systems (access control, burglar and fire alarms, video surveillance);
  • fire extinguishing systems that provide for the implementation of the functions assigned to the Customs authorities in the field of customs and the functions that ensure the activities of the Customs authorities, the provision of public services.
  1. It is possible to identify the basic principles of the main directions of ICT development for the long term:
  • improving institutional conditions with minimal direct regulation;
  • prioritization of state support;
  • creation of a scientific and technological reserve and new high-tech products in promising areas of ICT development.
  1. Russian researchers single out about 12 types of customs information technologies. The relatively new information technologies in the field of customs include
  • electronic declaration;
  • preliminary informing;
  • remote release;
  • automatic registration and automatic release of customs declarations;
  • electronic declaration of the transit procedure.
  1. In 2010 a functional mapping survey was carried out to inventory the functional elements of ICT systems for customs clearance at the border. This inventory takes into account the key functions of well-established products as well as new types of systems in the development process. As a result, the Border ICT Solutions Mapping Tool was created. One of the 38 solutions of the ICT Tool is «electronic customs».
  2. The considered tool identifies 15 functions (blocks), which, by decision of the Customs administration, can be automated: information Management; pre-Import; declarations, clearance and inspection; risk management; authorized economic operator; revenue; transit; enforcement; declaration; audit; investigations; appeals; global cooperation; quality management; systems support.

         The listed positions (functions) are detailed in 87 subheadings (characteristics) including for electronic customs. The Border ICT Solutions Mapping Tool is a matter of scientific and practical interest and deserves special attention in the study of the formation of the digital customs.

  1. The WCO administers the Technological network (TeN) which is a good resource, where relevant information on developments, ICT solutions in the field of customs administration is accumulated. Scientifically and practically, this WCO instrument can be called the leading technology center for customs and other border agencies, technology solution providers, international organizations and all other relevant stakeholders in border management. The Technological network can be used as an information resource for the development of the digital customs institute.

OTHER PUBLICATIONS

LIST OF SOURCED USED

  1. Mozer Sergei. Reports, scientific publications, projects. URL: http://customs-academy.net/?p=3817.
  2. Belousova T.I. Information technology as a tool for implementing the tasks of Customs Administration // Problems of the modern science of education. — 2014. — № 2 (20). URL: https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=21962037 (date of the request: 05.10.2019).
  3. Charushnikov E.O., Belousov Yu.L. Improving the efficiency of customs authorities through the use of information technology // Innovative Economy and Society. — 2016. — № 2 (12). URL: https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=26586495 (date of the request: 05.10.2019).
  4. IT Guide for Executives. World customs organization. June, 2018. URL: http://www.wcoomd.org/en/topics/facilitation/instrument-and-tools/tools/it-guide-for-executives.aspx (date of the request: 04.12.2019).
  5. Danielyan A.A., Lyubkina E.A., Khanov R.M. The impact of the development of information technology on staff requirements in customs authorities // NOVAUM.RU. — 2018. — № 11. URL: https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=32505993 (date of the request: 05.09.2019).

-166-

  1. Federal Law of July 27, 2006 № 149-ФЗ (as amended on March 18, 2019) «On Information, Information Technologies and Information Protection» // IPS Guarantor. URL: https://base.garant.ru/12148555/ (date of the request: 05.12.2019).
  2. «State Standard 34.003-90. Interstate standard. Information technology. Set of standards for automated systems. Automated systems. Terms and definitions» (approved and entered into force by the Decree of the USSR State Standard of 12.27.1990 № 3399) from the Information Bank «Строительство»// Consultant Plus.
  3. Goncharov S.B., Alibekov S.T. Legal aspects of the introduction of information technology in the customs regulation of the Eurasian Economic Union // Science and knowledge: Competitiveness of society, science and business in the context of global integration processes. Materials of the international scientific-practical conference. Under the general editorship of V.V. Ponomareva, T.A. Kutkovich. Novorossiysk, April 13-14, 2017 URL: https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=29294059 (date of the request: 05.10.2019).
  4. Aksenov I.A. Information technology in customs: a training manual. — Vladimir, 2016. URL: https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=25759994 (date of the request: 05.09.2019).
  5. Barandeev T.A. Information Technologies in Customs // Economic Security of Russia: Challenges of the 21st Century: Materials of an International Scientific and Practical Conference, Res. ed. I.A. Sushkova. 2016. Publisher: Saratov Socio-Economic Institute (branch) of the Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education «Russian University of Economics named after G.V. Plekhanov» (Saratov). URL: https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=26363124 (date of the request: 05.09.2019).
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  10. Saenko V.V., Kushtapin S.A., Garbuz V.V., Chernykh V.V., Zybina E.V. The main directions of the development of information and communication technologies in the Customs Authorities of the Russian Federation // Transport business of Russia. Publisher: Editorial board of the Sea News of Russia newspaper. — 2015. — № 3. URL: https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=23887560 (date of the request: 05.09.2019).
  11. Pletukhina A.A., Khvostova I.P. The role of information technology in the customs sphere // Economics and Management in the XXI Century: Development Trends .– 2016. — № 28-2. URL: https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=26095444 (date of the request: 05.10.2019).
  12. Polukhin I.V., Forikova A.O. Application of information technology for the import of goods into the customs territory of the Eurasian Economic Union // Logistics systems in the global economy. — 2017. — № 7. URL: https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=29095752 (date of the request: 10.05.2019).
  13. Border ICT Solutions Mapping Tool. URL: http://ictsolutions.wcoomdpublications.org/border_survey.php (date of the request: 11.05.2019).
  14. Information and Communications Technology Procurement. Best Practices Guide for Customs Administrations. USAID. May 2011. URL: http://ictsolutions.wcoomdpublications.org/USAID_ICT_Procurement_Guide_for_Customs.pdf (date of the request: 11.05.2019).
  15. Intrasoft International. URL:  https://ecustoms.intrasoft-intl.com/contact (date of the request: 11.05.2019).
  16. SIVECO Romania. URL: http://www.siveco.ro/en (date of the request: 11.05.2019).
  17. The WCO Technology Network (TeN). URL:  https://ten.wcoomd.org/ (date of the request: 12.05.2019).
  18. WCO’s Databank on Advanced Technology. See Stefan Aniszewski. WCO Technology and Innovation Forum: Background Paper. WCO Research Paper № 4. November 2009. URL:  http://www.wcoomd.org/~/media/wco/public/global/pdf/topics/research/research-paper-series/technology.pdf?la=en (date of the request: 12.05.2019).
  19. The WCO introduces its Technology Network/ World Customs Organization. 16 June 2014. URL:  http://www.wcoomd.org/en/media/newsroom/2014/june/the-wco-introduces-its-technology-network.aspx (date of the request: 12.05.2019).
  20. The WCO Technology Network (TeN). URL:  https://ten.wcoomd.org/ (date of the request: 12.05.2019).
  21. Border ICT Solutions Mapping Tool. URL:http://ictsolutions.wcoomdpublications.org/border_survey.php (date of the request: 11.05.2019).

[1] Belousova T.I. Information technologies as an instrument to implement the tasks of Customs administration // Problems of modern science of education. — 2014. — № 2 (20). — P. 52. URL: https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=21962037 (date of the request: 10.05.2019).

[2] Charushnikov E.O., Belousov Yu.L. Improving the efficiency of the Customs authorities through the use of information technologies // Innovative economy and society. — 2016. — № 2 (12). — C.80. URL: https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=26586495 (date of the request: 10.05.2019).

[3] See IT Guide for Executives. World customs Organization. June, 2018. URL:  http://www.wcoomd.org/en/topics/facilitation/instrument-and-tools/tools/it-guide-for-executives.aspx (date of the request: 12.04.2019).

[4] Danielyan A.A., Lyubkina E.A., Khanov R.M. Influence of the development of information technology on the requirements for personnel in the Customs authorities // NOVAUM.RU. — 2018. — № 11. — P. 57. URL: https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=32505993 (date of the request: 05/09/2019).

[5] See Federal Law  «On Information, Information Technologies and Information Protection» dated July 27, 2006 №.149-ФЗ // ConsultantPlus.

[6] «GOST 34.003-90. Interstate standard. Information technology. Set of standards for automated systems. Automated systems. Terms and definitions» (approved and enacted by Decree of the USSR State Standard of 12/27/1990 № 3399) from the information bank «Construction» // Consultant Plus.

[7] ISO/IEC 38500:2008

[8] Goncharov S.B., Alibekov S.T. Legal aspects of the implementation of information technologies in the customs regulation of the Eurasian Economic Union // Science and Knowledge: Competitiveness of society, science and business in the context of world integration processes. Materials of the international scientific-practical conference. Edited by V.V. Ponomareva, T.A. Kutkovich. Novorossiysk, April 13-14, 2017 — P.43. URL: https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=29294059 (date of the request: 05/10/2019).

[9] Aksenov I.A. Information technology in customs: a textbook. — Vladimir, 2016. — P.12. URL: https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=25759994 (access date: 05/09/2019).

[10] Barandeev, T.A. Information technologies in customs // Economic security of Russia: challenges of the XXI century: materials of the international scientific-practical conference. Responsible editor. I.A. Sushkova. 2016. Publisher: Saratov Social and Economic Institute (Branch) of the Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education «Russian Economic University. G.V. Plekhanov» (Saratov). — P. 329. URL: https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=26363124 (date of the request: 05/09/2019).

[11] Voronov A.M. Information technology in the activities of Customs authorities: organizational and legal support // Bulletin of the Russian Customs Academy. — 2008. — № 2. — p. 81. URL: https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=12000713 (date of the request: 05/09/2019).

[12] Ibid.

[13] Gorbenko V.M., Malakhova S.M. The use of information technology as one of the ways to improve customs administration // Eurasian Union of Scientists. — 2015. — № 4-1 (13). — P. 113. URL: https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=27470139 (date of the request: 05/09/2019).

[14] Ibid.

[15] Sergeeva I.A., Petrova Yu.O. Management of the activities of Customs authorities through the use of information technology // Actualscience. — 2017. — № 1. — p. 74. URL: https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=28314536 (date of the request: 05/09/2019).

[16] Lepa T.P. Information technology in the customs field. — Irkutsk, 2016. — p.11. URL: https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=26794393 (date of the request: 05/12/2019).

[17] Ibid.

[18] Saenko V.V., Kushtapin S.A., Garbuz V.V., Chernykh V.V., Zybina E.V. The main directions of development of information and communication technologies in the Customs authorities of the Russian Federation // Transport business of Russia. Publisher: Editor of the newspaper «Moscow News of Russia». — 2015. — № 3. — p. 111 — 116. URL: https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=23887560 (date of the request: 05/09/2019).

[19] Ibid.

[20] See Appendix № 1, No. 2. Saenko V.V., Kushtapin S.A., Garbuz V.V., Chernykh V.V., Zybina E.V. The main directions of development of information and communication technologies in the Customs authorities of the Russian Federation // Transport business of Russia. Publisher: Editor of the newspaper «Moscow News of Russia». — 2015. — № 3. — p. 111 — 116. URL: https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=23887560 (date of the request: 05/09/2019).

[21] Saenko V.V., Kushtapin S.A., Garbuz V.V., Chernykh V.V., Zybina E.V. The main directions of development of information and communication technologies in the Customs authorities of the Russian Federation // Transport business of Russia. Publisher: Editor of the newspaper «Moscow News of Russia». — 2015. — № 3. — P. 112. URL: https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=23887560 (date of the request: 05/09/2019).

[22] Ibid.

[23] Ibid.

[24] Pletukhina A.A., Khvostova I.P. The role of information technology in the customs sphere // Economy and management in the XXI century: development trends. –2016. — № 28-2. — P. 145. URL: https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=26095444 (date of the request: 10.05.2019).

[25] Ibid.

[26] Border ICT Solutions Mapping Tool. URL: http://ictsolutions.wcoomdpublications.org/border_survey.php (date of the request: 11.05.2019)

[27] Ibid.

[28] Ibid.

[29] Ibid.

[30]   Intrasoft International. URL:  https://ecustoms.intrasoft-intl.com/contact (date of the request: 11.05.2019)

[31] SIVECO Romania. URL: http://www.siveco.ro/en (date of the request: 11.05.2019)

[32] The WCO Technology Network (TeN). URL:  https://ten.wcoomd.org/ (date of the request: 12.05.2019)

[33] WCO’s Databank on Advanced Technology. See Stefan Aniszewski. WCO Technology and Innovation Forum: Background Paper. WCO Research Paper № 4. November 2009. – P. 6. URL:  http://www.wcoomd.org/~/media/wco/public/global/pdf/topics/research/research-paper-series/technology.pdf?la=en (date of the request: 12.05.2019)

[34] The WCO introduces its Technology Network/ World customs Organization. 16 June 2014. URL:  http://www.wcoomd.org/en/media/newsroom/2014/june/the-wco-introduces-its-technology-network.aspx (date of the request: 12.05.2019)

[35] The WCO Technology Network (TeN). URL:  https://ten.wcoomd.org/ (date of the request: 12.05.2019)

[36] The WCO introduces its Technology Network/ World customs Organization. 16 June 2014. URL:  http://www.wcoomd.org/en/media/newsroom/2014/june/the-wco-introduces-its-technology-network.aspx (date of the request: 12.05.2019)