DIGITAL CUSTOMS IN THE CONTEXT OF CAPACITY BUILDING OF THE WORLD CUSTOMS ORGANIZATION

Sergei Mozer

РУССКИЙ

Sergei MozerPh.D. at law

Deputy Head of Division of Advanced Customs Technologies, Department of Customs Legislation of the Eurasian Economic CommissionContact Person for Communication with the World Customs Organization.

Senior Researcher in the Research Institute of the Russian Customs Academy.

e-mail: moser@teloneum.net

Web: http://customs-academy.net/?page_id=10398

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Published: Gaps in Russian legislation. — № 6 (November). — 2019. — pages 193-202. © S.V. Mozer, 2019

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Abstract

Purpose

To analyze the activities of the Capacity Building Committee (CBC) of the World Customs Organization on the formation of the legal institute of digital customs.

Design/methodology/approach

The research article is devoted to the issues of improving the instruments of customs regulation within the framework of the functioning of the WCO Capacity Building Committee. The subject of the research is the digital customs institute. It is comprehensively considered the CBC approaches in 2016 in terms of the formation of digital customs as an integrated legal phenomenon under the theme «The Future of Customs: What are the Organizational Development Needs as We Move Towards Digital Customs and Technologies».

Social implications

The introduction of the digital customs institute in the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU) law and customs regulation as a whole is aimed at optimizing customs operations and simplifying trade procedures.

Practical meaning

The results of the study are of interest to the customs block of the Eurasian Economic Commission (EEC), can be used within the organization of the work of the Capacity Building Committee, the Information Management Subcommittee and the WCO Permanent Technical Committee in the context of the EEC — WCO international customs cooperation. The article is recommended to researchers, as well as experts from the Customs Administrations of the EEU Member States, whose activities are related to the improvement of customs regulation, modernization of the digital customs institute, as well as international customs law.

Originality/value

The research material is based on an analysis of the practical aspects of the WCO’s activities and is a continuation of scientific and practical publications on the development of the digital customs institute within the framework of the WCO’s activities.

 

Keywords: The World Customs Organization, the WCO, the Eurasian Economic Union, EEU, the Eurasian Economic Commission, EEC, Capacity Building Committee, e-Customs, digital Customs, customs regulation, customs administration, international customs law, customs.

To date, as part of a study of the development of digital customs at the World Customs Organization (hereinafter referred to as the WCO, Organization), we have studied the approaches, developments, and projects of various bodies of the Organization to the formation of the digital customs institution. Most of them were presented to the attention of the scientific and expert community in June — October 2019.[1] In this article, we will address certain aspects of the activities of the WCO Secretariat and the Capacity building Committee on the same issues.

First of all, we note that The Capacity Building Committee acts under the overall direction of the WCO Council and Policy Commission, with administrative support provided by the WCO Secretariat. The mandate of the Capacity Building Committee is to initiate work and studies on capacity building, to consider overall

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capacity building priorities, and to prepare guidelines, standards, tools and instruments to support capacity building initiatives with the object of enabling the Council to discharge the obligations of the Convention Establishing the Customs Co-operation Council in accordance with the general purpose of the Convention.[2]

Let us turn to the analysis of the formation of the digital customs institution in the context of the WCO institutional development. So, the Digital customs has become a key theme for several topics that were discussed at the seventh meeting of the WCO Capacity Building Committee,[3] held in Bessel from 11 to 13 April 2016. Item 2 of the agenda of the meeting defined the question «The future of customs: what are the needs of organizational development when we are moving towards digital customs and technology». We need to note that digital customs and technologies are divided as two separate objects that should be examined by delegates of the WCO Member countries when considering the future of customs. In order to organize discussions on the stated topic, the WCO Secretariat prepared the analytical report with the same title «The Future of Customs: What are the Organizational Development Needs as We Move Towards Digital Customs and Technologies».[4] The purpose of this document is to raise the topic of digital customs in the Capacity Building Committee as an emerging contentious issue related directly to capacity building, and to identify guidelines for the organization of future work that complements ongoing work on this topic in other WCO bodies. Committee experts were expected to comment on and point to organizational requirements for effectively managing the integration of ICT as well as technologies in general. It was assumed that these requirements would establish an agenda for defining future best practices and recommendations that will be integrated into digital customs programs on capacity building  development, reform and modernization.[5]

         The WCO Secretary General at the session of the Capacity Building Committee noted the importance of the human factor, as it is people who provide support in training Customs services (Administrations), especially for efforts in the field of digital customs. He also noticed that in March 2016 the PTC has clearly defined the enablers of digital customs such as (1) strategy, (2) legal basis, (3) management structure, and (4) ICT infrastructure (FIG. 1).

         Note: the characteristics of each of the factors are presented in the materials of the 2nd meeting of the WCO Working Group on E-Commerce, which was held at the WCO Headquarters on October 10-13, 2017.[6] Along with the named factors, three more were voiced: Human Resource Capabilities and Skills, data security, Business continuity plan.

         The priority areas of «digital customs» remain (1) «connectivity», (2) «coordinated border management (single window)», (3) «Data model», (4) «e-commerce», (5) «Big data», (6) information exchange and (7) sustainable development goals.[7]

         The WCO Secretariat informed the Committee that it would continue its work on reviewing existing tools, developing core competencies for digital customs, monitoring information technology development and creating a clear repository of advanced IT modernization techniques for its Member countries.

         For reference, we note that in management theory, scientists identify strategic, core, key, and leading competences. In the other grouping it is mentioned standard, key and leading competencies.

         The strategic competences include strategically significant units of activity in which it is the strongest.

Core competencies are factors that provide organizations with threshold,

basic competitive advantages in the long term.

         Key competencies — competencies, that ensure the solution of organizational-specific tasks, on which its stability in the market depends. [8]It can be considered as a set of abilities that allows to solve special problems that are not typical for most market participants. The presence of key competencies leads the company to

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Competencies of digital customs

market leaders and makes it very stable when competition becomes tougher. Such criteria of key competence are distinguished as significance for consumers, uniqueness, the possibility of improvement, cooperation (competence can result from the unique interaction of a number of partners, organizations and consumers); the competence is based on knowledge.[9]

         Leading — competencies that allow organizations to solve unique problems with which its breakthrough to new markets, those that can become key.[10] Under this type of competence we also understand the benefits in solving problems (situations) that will become a zone of competition in the future with increased competition. Leading competence provides leadership to the organization in the future.[11]

         In our opinion, the creation or allocation of competencies of digital customs will allow us to bring closer our vision of digital customs as a complex phenomenon, institution, tool, mechanism. Today, the scientific community knows nothing  about competencies of digital customs.

         The introductory session which set the tone for the ensuing discussions was devoted to addressing the organizational development needs required for ICT management and development for sustainable customs reform and modernization.[12] As a result of the discussions, the Capacity Building Committee asked the WCO Secretariat to develop a guide on best practices for organizational structures in ICT governance. The main provisions of the document «The Future of Customs: What are the Organizational Development Needs as We Move Towards Digital Customs and Technologies» are as follows.

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Fig. 1. Factors, priority areas for digital customs [13]

The rapidly changing technological landscape has influenced the work of customs and governments. Today, almost every initiative to reform and modernize the Customs service is associated with the automation of customs clearance systems. The use of ICT in customs workplaces extends from automated clearance systems to declaration processing, risk management and other customs procedures to office automation. Customs is constantly looking for ways to develop digital solutions and services to simplify procedures, prohibit controlled goods and reduce costs for the trading community and logistics operators.[14]

The WCO Secretariat indicates that new technologies are already emerging on the horizon such as the use of Big data, telematics, biometrics and many wireless technologies. The entire technological landscape continues to evolve rapidly with the emergence of a number of key trends such as cloud computing, mobile technologies, advanced data analytics and advances in information management. Each of these technologies has a different impact on the customs operating environment. This landscape provides numerous opportunities for communication between Customs administrations, as well as with trade operators and other border control authorities. According to the WCO, Customs authorities should consider how best to use these technologies to increase operational efficiency and help rethink business practices. After all, an increase in national and cross-border productivity leads to accelerated economic growth.

The WCO continues to adhere to the fact that, in order to support Member countries in their efforts to further introduce digital customs, the World Customs Organization has developed an extensive set of tools and applications.[15] In our opinion, this thesis is controversial. If there is no definition of the terms  «electronic» or «digital customs» in the package of tools, it is very difficult to accept such a point of view. The analyzed question requires an objective approach. At the time of the session of the Capacity Building Committee (April 11-13, 2016), there were no instruments and tools for digital or electronic customs. There were only WCO tools that affect the application of information and communication technologies.

Let us ask a question. What is the point of creating a certain institution of electronic or digital customs, if the same WCO customs regulation tools were used before? Why do we need to form a new «brand», an institution (digital customs) on the basis of old (former) tools in the absence of new ones? What is the goal of creating digital customs, if it is possible to develop modern customs — the customs of the 21st century on the basis of modern information and communication technologies without this «brand»? In our opinion, if a new institution is created, then it should be characterized by specific features, characteristics that distinguish it into an independent group, unit. This institution, the phenomenon should be characterized by a relatively independent system of legal norms peculiar to it as well as a system of elements, a mechanism of management, administration of customs operations, etc. In our case, digital customs, without having formed a conceptual apparatus, is identified with information and communication technologies that already existed before the creation of this «brand».

In a presentation on the WCO instruments and tools, the Secretariat experts divided them into three groups (strategic, political / legal, operational):

Strategic: WCO Strategic Plan,[16] IT Guide for Executives,[17]  WCO Compendium. How to Build a Single Window Environment (Volume 1).[18]

Political / Legal: Revised Kyoto Convention,[19] SAFE Framework of Standards to Secure and Facilitate Global Trade,[20] Nairobi Convention, Model Bilateral Agreement on Mutual Administrative Assistance in Customs matters,[21] Global Customs Network Guide (GNC), Customs Guidelines on Integrated Supply Chain Management.[22]

Operational: WCO Data Model,[23] Guide to Information Customs Technologies to the Kyoto Convention,[24] Dematerialization of supporting documents, Coordinated Border Management Compendium,[25] WCO Compendium. How to Build a Single Window Environment (Volume 2),[26] Risk Management Compendium CEN/nCEN/CENComm, Advance Cargo Information System, Guide to advanced passenger information and passenger name records,[27]  WCO Cargo Targeting System,[28] Technology Network (TeN),[29] Public-Members Interface (IPM),[30] Iris Open Information Collection Platform,[31] I2C — WCO Information & Intelligence Centre,[32] Global Network of Customs Utility Block (GNC UBs).[33]

 

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At the meeting of the Capacity Building Committee as well as at sessions of the Permanent Technical Committee, the position is declared, according to which, the Revised Kyoto Convention in Chapter 7 of the General Annex «Application of Information Technologies» lays the foundations for the use of ICT by Customs administrations. In addition, the WCO carried out a mapping exercise to evaluate ICT-related tools and their purpose.[34] This mapping exercise goes hand in hand with ongoing work carried out by the WCO on the IT Guide for Executives, which is designed as a concise guide, which briefly discusses the key aspects of developing and deploying ICT solutions for high-level customs officials as well as officials who are directly responsible for ICT project management. According to the WCO, the IT Guide for Executives extensively examines the six topics of digital customs identified by the Policy Commission in December 2015: leadership; legal basis; modernization and reform; protection of society; communication; and coordinated border management.[35] In addition, the WCO is currently engaged in further work in several other related areas, for example, the strategy for promoting the WCO Data model; Data security; Big data; Supplement of a «single window»; Global Customs Network Handbook; Interoperability and NII; and the use of drones.[36]

We pay particular attention to the fact that the listed tools are referred to in the WCO analytical note as other related areas (and not the digital customs — the author’s note). This thesis is more acceptable to us than the provision actually identifying digital customs with the early developed WCO information and communication technology tools.

The WCO Secretariat emphasizes that at present the administrative structures, providing support for ICT management for customs, vary considerably from country to country. In many cases, Customs administrations have a special department in their composition, a department of information communication technologies. For those Customs administrations working in joint organizations (for example, in taxation, immigration, etc.), the ICT management function is responsible for maintaining both services in the same organization. In addition, it is often possible to find mechanisms in which the ICT management function supporting customs is the management function of the relevant department of the ministry. Another example is that there is a centralized government ICT authority for many departments (including customs), which is subordinated to another ministry. And finally, there are still cases where ICT management support for customs is provided only as part of their projects, reform and modernization programs, and not as a permanent function.

In the context of digital customs, it is becoming clear that Customs administrations must have ongoing support from a reliable and well-functioning unit of the ICT Department for sustainable development and service delivery. In this regard, for many administrations, the development or further strengthening of capacity building for the proper management of ICT and the integration of new technologies can be a priority. ICTs are a common critical success factor for achieving modernization goals in their capacity building programs.[37]

In various instruments, the WCO has already identified a list of organizational capabilities necessary for effective ICT management and technology integration:

  1. Planning, optimization and modeling of business processes in the field of customs.
  2. Preparation of detailed specifications of the user’s system based on the established requirements of the Customs administration and international standards.
  3. Carry out cost assessments and assessments for ICT development and the integration of new technologies and an assessment of the future impact on operational costs.
  4. Providing support for procurement and own development decisions.
  5. Assessment of the quality of IT services and the management of relevant contracts.
  6. Indication and management of ICT infrastructures and updates.
  7. Identification and reduction of risks in the implementation of ICT solutions and new technologies as well as ensuring business continuity.
  8. Definition and implementation of policy in the field of standardization and harmonization of data, data integration and compatibility.
  9. Preparation of accompanying documentation on ICT solutions and new technologies.
  10. Support change management processes.
  11. Definition and implementation of policies and solutions for data security.
  12. Coordination of ICT organizational developments with broader national e-government initiatives.
  13. Acquaintance with new technologies.

         According to WCO, the success of ICT development initiatives and technology integration is likely to depend on many other organizational opportunities, such as:

  • good strategic planning and sequence of actions to determine priorities;
  • project management, change management;

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  • effective stakeholder engagement and consultation;
  • adequate budget and financial management, especially for multi-year development programs.

         Another important aspect, the WCO Secretariat draws attention, is how to develop these capabilities in terms of human resources, in the context of digital customs and technology integration. It is not enough to simply create ancillary structures and define responsibilities. Administrations should be able to develop their knowledge in the field of IT and technology, to hire or develop qualified specialists in these areas.

         The WCO believes that another example of the opportunity that digital customs presents is closer real-time cooperation between Customs administrations as well as between customs and business, in facilitating legal trade and customs control. The tasks considered include examples when it is difficult to create a national «single window», the concept of data harmonization at the regional level, and cyber security problems.[38]

         Regarding the future action plan, the World Customs Organization highlighted the following areas of work:

  • Further development of the digital customs concept.
  • Review, update relevant WCO instruments and tools and, if necessary, develop new ones.
  • Implementation, consolidation of electronic services — electronic payments, electronic processing of permits / authorizations, electronic refund, receiving electronic copies, communications, mobile applications.
  • Improving the electronic interface and information exchange with existing and new stakeholders, economic operators, such as electronic providers, postal operators, and online payment services.
  • Development of managerial and operational competence in the field of ICT in customs.
  • Development, improvement of relevant technologies, tools, if necessary.
  • Monitoring new and emerging technologies from a customs and trade point of view for a well-thought-out political response.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Organizational capabilities necessary for effective ICT management and technology integration

  • The creation of a repository, ICT observatory of Member countries has led to the emergence of innovative practices to improve trade facilitation, improve compliance, effective control and efficient service delivery.[39]

             Based on the questions on the application of ICT, which were formed by the WCO Secretariat for discussion at the session of the Capacity Building Committee, we will form similar ones to create digital customs in the context of capacity building:

  • What is required at the organizational level to ensure that the Customs service implements and maintains a reliable and well-functioning e-customs environment?
  • What are the problems and consequences of the growing use of ICT in integrating technology into customs operations in the context of the development of the digital customs institution?
  • Does customs use existing software and hardware technologies with maximum benefit as part of the development of the digital customs institute?
  • Are there other recent or emerging technological developments that may provide new opportunities or influence the modernization of digital customs?

         Without a doubt, the implications of the work of the WCO Capacity Building Committee are difficult to overestimate. The work of this block of this International Organization has brought many interesting provisions for the formation of the institute of digital customs. As an example, we will call the development of the Smart Customs Institute (Smart Customs), a topic considered at the 9th meeting of the CBC from February 26-28, 2018 at the WCO Headquarters. This subject, in our opinion, is included in the complex of provisions, ideas about digital customs. However, we will consider this issue in the next study.

            

CONCLUSIONS

  1. An important area of work for the World Customs Organization and its working bodies is capacity building. The subject of the formation of the digital customs institute was examined at the meeting of the WCO’s Capacity Building Committee, held in Bessel from 11 to 13 April 2016.
  2. Within the stated theme «The Future of Customs: What are the Organizational Development Needs as We Move Towards Digital Customs and Technologies» digital customs and technologies are highlighted as independent elements.
  3. In the theoretical aspect, a matter of interest is the classification of factors (enablers), priority areas, key trends in digital customs as well as new technologies presented to the attention of the international customs community:

         key enablers (contributing factors) of digital customs:

  • strategy;
  • legal basis;
  • governance structure;
  • ICT infrastructure.

         priority areas of digital customs:

  • connectivity;
  • coordinated border management (single window);
  • Data Model;
  • e-commerce;
  • Big data;
  • exchange of information;
  • sustainable development goals.

         key trends in digital customs

  • cloud computing;
  • mobile technologies;
  • advanced data analytics and
  • advances in information management.
  1. An important aspect of the development of digital customs is the development and subsequent development of the core competencies of digital customs. We believe that the WCO needs to develop strategic, pivotal, standard,

 

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key and leading competencies of digital customs. To date, their absence does not allow to consider digital customs as an independent organization, mechanism, complex phenomenon or instrument. This fact allows us to identify digital customs with information communication technologies as well as WCO instruments and tools for ICT, and we do not share this point of view.

  1. At the same time, the WCO needs to develop Best Practices Guide for the Development of the Digital Customs Institute.
  2. As for digital customs institute, the WCO uses the concept of «technological landscape», which is rapidly evolving with the emergence of a number of key trends, such as cloud computing, mobile technologies, advanced data analytics and advances in information management. The technological landscape provides numerous opportunities for communication between Сustoms administrations as well as with trade operators and other border control authorities. It is important that such technologies on the part of customs increase operational efficiency and help rethink how economic operators conduct business.
  3. The formed institution of digital customs should be characterized by specific features, properties that distinguish it into an independent group, a block of other institutions of customs administration. This institution, organization, phenomenon, mechanism should be characterized by a relatively independent system of legal norms peculiar only to i, as well as elements, mechanisms of management, administration of customs operations, technologies, etc. In our case, digital customs, without forming a conceptual apparatus, is identified with information and communication technologies that already existed before the creation of the «brand» digital customs.
  4. The WCO experts conducted a grouping of instruments and tools that, in their opinion, belong to the institution of digital customs: strategic, political / legal and operational.

         Among the political documents of this classification is the WCO Strategic Plan, the IT Guide for Executives, and the Compendium on a Single Window. However, if we turn to, for example, the IT Guide for Executives, we will not find answers to current questions about the development of digital customs. In this tool, there is no definition of the term «digital customs», there is no description of the competencies of digital customs as well as any characteristics that distinguish such customs from a group of other institutions, organizations, mechanisms, tools.

         Let’s give an example. In the Federal Customs Service of Russia digital customs is a specialized customs body that is part of a Single Federal Centralized System of Customs Authorities and ensures the implementation of the tasks and functions of the Federal Customs Service of Russia. We should pay attention, these are not technologies and tools for their implementation, this is an organization, a legal entity, a structural unit of customs. And for practitioners, international experience in the development of such customs is a matter of interest.

         In our opinion, the WCO needs to develop (create) together with the WCO working bodies political, strategic documents on digital customs of a different level. For example, the WCO Guide on Digital Customs, the WCO Guide on Best Practices for the Development of the Digital Customs Institute. We assume that certain provisions of previously developed WCO instruments and tools can enter the new Compendium, the Manual. However, this should be done under the sign «digital customs». Otherwise, the institution analyzed by us is depersonalized against the background of the sign «information and communication technologies».

         Such a conclusion is based on the results of the meeting of the thematic block «electronic customs», which was held in the customs block of the Eurasian Economic Commission at the end of 2018 on the development of the digital customs institution in the Member states of the Eurasian Economic Union. The event was attended by representatives of the Customs administrations of Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Russia. The problem was that none of the reviewed WCO documents contained a definition of digital customs, and the concept of this customs was associated with the development of ICT. In other words, practitioners do not have serious scientific and methodological material, developments for the building of the institute of digital customs. Actually for this reason, the idea was born to prepare an independent study on the review of international experience in building digital customs, and, above all, based on the approaches, vision, proposals of the World Customs Organization. We believe that the monograph «DIGITAL CUSTOMS. THE WCO EXPERIENCE»  will allow completing this task.

  1. In order to create digital customs, the Customs service in its structure should have a reliable and well-functioning subdivision — the Department of information and communication technologies for sustainable development and the provision of services.
  2. Within the framework of capacity building, the training of personnel for modern customs, and in our case, digital customs, is an important organizational issue that needs to be considered by the executives of the Customs administration. A relevant topic is the development of potential in terms of human resources in the context of digital customs and technology integration. It is not enough to simply create ancillary structures and define responsibilities. Customs services should be able to develop their knowledge in the field of ICT and customs technologies in

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general, to build labor relations with qualified specialists in these areas.

  1. The list of organizational capabilities necessary for effective ICT management and technology integration in the context of the formation of digital customs is defined.[40]
  2. In order to develop the digital customs institution, the World Customs Organization has identified a number of important areas of work. Among them remains the further development of the concept of digital customs; updating relevant WCO instruments and tools and, if necessary, developing new ones; implementation, consolidation of electronic services — electronic payments, electronic processing of permits, authorizations, electronic refund, receiving electronic copies, communications, mobile applications, etc.
  3. According to the author, it is necessary to involve higher education institutions (academic society) that actively cooperate with the World Customs Organization in the research of the digital customs institution. Ideally, institutions of higher education can receive current topics (themes) developed at the level of research works, dissertations, and graduation projects developed at the WCO. Feedback of the WCO with universities in the form of the forward (sending) of research results to the WCO will allow eliminating the scientific and methodological gap that exists in relation to the institution of digital customs.
  4. To resolve this issue, it is necessary to intensify the work of the Research Unit of the WCO Secretariat. For reference, we note that the Research Unit conducts scientifically-based analytical studies and analysis of policy issues in the field of customs and international trade. It also organizes international research events, such as, for example, the PICARD Conference.[41]

OTHER PUBLICATIONS

LIST OF SOURCED USED 

  1. Mozer Sergei. Publications. URL: http://customs-academy.net/?page_id=10398
  2. Kadyrkulov M.A., Mozer Sergei, Lipatova N.G. The World Customs Organization asa Modern Institute of Improvement of Customs Regulation and Trade Facilitation: a monograph. Lyubertsy: Publishing house of the Russian Customs Academy, 2017. URL: http://customs-academy.net/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/Мон.-ВТамО_Кадыркулов_Мозер_Липатоваpdf
  3. Capacity Building Committee. Terms of Reference for the Capacity Building Committee. Confirmed by the Council – 1 July 2009. Established : April 2010. World Customs Organization. URL: http://www.wcoomd.org/en/about-us/wco-working-bodies/capacity_building/capacity_building_committee.aspx (date of the request: 04.02.2019).
  4. The Future of Customs: What are the Organizational Development Needs as We Move Towards Digital Customs and Technologies. Item II on the Agenda. 7th Session of the Capacity Building Committee. 11 — 13 April 2016. Doc. HC0083E1a. Brussels, 14 March 2016.
  5. Digital Customs: Bridging Digital Divide. (Item XII.b on the Agenda). 2nd Meeting of the WCO Working Group on E-Commerce (10 – 13 October 2017). Doc. EM0019E1a. Brussels, 12 September 2017.
  6. Report to the Capacity Building Committee. 7th Session of the Capacity Building Committee. 11 — 13 April 2016. Doc. HC0093E1a. Brussels, 14 June 2016.
  7. Presentation, report «Competency-based approach in personnel management». URL: https://myslide.ru/presentation/skachat-kompetentnostnyj-podxod-v-upravlenii-personalom (date of the request: 04.02.2019).
  8. Types of Organization Competencies. URL: https://studopedia.org/11-99050.html (date of the request: 04.02.2019).
  9. A Strategic Approach to Support ICT-enabled Customs and Cross-Border Regulatory Reform through WCO Tools, Instruments, and Guidelines. Digital Customs. Item XII on the Agenda.75th Session of the Policy Commission. Doc. SP0560E1a. Brussels, 14 June 2016.
  10. Pandey P.N. Digital Customs. Strategic Approach to Support ICT-enabled Customs and Cross-Border Regulatory Reforms through WCO Tools, Instruments and Guidelines: Presentation. 7th Session of the Capacity Building Committee. Brussels, 11 — 13 April 2016.
  11. WCO Strategic Plan for the years 2016-2017 to 2018-2019. World Customs Organization. URL: http://www.wcoomd.org/en/about-us/what-is-the-wco/strategic-plan.aspx (date of the request: 04.04.2019).
  12. IT Guide for Executives. World customs Organization. June, 2018. URL: http://www.wcoomd.org/en/topics/facilitation/instrument-and-tools/tools/it-guide-for-executives.aspx (date of the request: 07.03.2019).
  13. WCO Compendium. How to Build a Single Window Environment. Volume 1. The Executive Guide. World Customs Organization. URL: https://www.icao.int/Meetings/AirCargoDevelopmentForum-Togo/Documents/SingleWindow_Compendium_Vol_1_E.pdf (date of the request: 04.04.2019).
  14. International Convention on the Simplification and Harmonization of Customs Procedures. URL: http://www.wcoomd.org/en/topics/facilitation/instrument-and-tools/conventions/pf_revised_kyoto_conv/kyoto_new/preamble.aspx#ar8 (date of the request: 04.04.2019).
  15. SAFE Framework of Standards to Secure and Facilitate Global Trade. World Customs Organization. URL: http://www.wcoomd.org/-/media/wco/public/global/pdf/topics/facilitation/instruments-and-tools/tools/safe-package/safe-framework-of-standards.pdf?la=en (date of the request: 04.04.2019).
  16. Model Bilateral Agreement on Mutual Administrative Assistance in Customs matters. World Customs Organization. URL: http://www.wcoomd.org/en/topics/enforcement-and-compliance/instruments-and-tools/~/media/DFAAF3B7943E4A53B12475C7CE54D8BD.ashx (date of the request: 04.04.2019).
  17. Customs Guidelines on Integrated Supply Chain Management. (ISCM Guidelines). World Customs Organization. URL: http://www.wcoomd.org/~/media/D81B2807C64A4B669942F88D51D5FCF6.ashx (date of the request: 04.04.2019).
  18. WCO Data Model. World Customs Organization. URL: http://www.wcoomd.org/en/topics/facilitation/instrument-and-tools/~/link.aspx?_id=3BD324CD868948748147E210059706BC&_z=z (date of the request: 04.04.2019);
  19. Application of information and communication technology. Chapter 7. General Annex Guidelines. Kyoto Convention. URL: http://www.wcoomd.org/-/media/wco/public/global/pdf/topics/facilitation/instruments-and-tools/tools/ict-guidelines/ict-guidelines.pdf?db=web (date of the request: 01.03.2019);
  20. General information: ICT Guidelines. World Customs Organization. URL: http://www.wcoomd.org/en/Topics/Facilitation/Instrument%20and%20Tools/Tools/ICT%20Guidelines (date of the request: 01.03.2019).
  21. Coordinated Border Management Compendium. World Customs Organization. URL: http://www.wcoomd.org/-/media/wco/public/global/pdf/topics/facilitation/instruments-and-tools/tools/safe-package/cbm-compendium.pdf?la=en (date of the request: 04.04.2019).
  22. WCO Compendium. How to Build a Single Window Environment. Volume 2. The Professional Practice Guide. World Customs Organization. URL: https://www.icao.int/Meetings/AirCargoDevelopmentForum-Togo/Documents/SingleWindow_Compendium_Vol_2_E.pdf (date of the request: 04.04.2019).
  23. How to Build an Advance Passenger Information (API) / Passenger Name Record (PNR) Programme. Guidance for Customs Administrations. World Customs Organization. URL: http://www.wcoomd.org/-/media/wco/public/global/pdf/topics/facilitation/instruments-and-tools/tools/api-guidelines-and-pnr-doc/guidance-for-customs-administrations-on-how-to-build-an-api-pnr-programme.pdf (date of the request: 04.04.2019).
  24. WCO Cargo Targeting System. World Customs Organization. URL: http://www.wcoomd.org/en/topics/wco-implementing-the-wto-atf/~/media/6E2118554F6A43DB83A07C603494C627.ashx (date of the request: 04.04.2019).
  25. Technology Network. World Customs Organization. URL: https://ten.wcoomd.org/products?field_categories%5B0%5D=13&ref=13 (date of the request: 04.04.2019).
  26. The WCO Tool in the Fight Against Counterweighting. The World Customs Organization. URL: http://www.wcoipm.org/__resources/userfiles/file/IPM-Brochure.pdf (date of the request: 04.04.2019).
  27. Compliance and Enforcement. The World Customs Organization. URL: http://www.wcoomd.org/~/media/wco/public/global/pdf/topics/enforcement-and-compliance/overview/wco_cep_online-brochure_en_for-hyperlinks.pdf?db=web  (date of the request: 05.03.2019).
  28. I2C — WCO Information & Intelligence Centre. World Customs Organization. URL: (дата обращения: http://www.wcoomd.org/es-es/topics/enforcement-and-compliance/instruments-and-tools/i2c.aspx (date of the request: 05.04.2019).
  29. Armen Manukyan. WCO-UNESCAP 3rd UNNExT Masterclass: Digital Customs and Single Windows in the Context of WTO TFA Cheonan, 19-28 April 2017. – Slide.8. URL: https://www.unescap.org/sites/default/files/27%20Apr%202017%20-%20WCO%20Globally%20Networked%20Customs.pdf (date of the request: 05.04.2019).
  30. Report to the Policy Commission. Policy Commission, 74th Session.  Punta Cana, 7-9 December 2015. Doc. SP0550E1a. Brussels, 27 January 2016.
  31. Customs ICT Solutions Database. World Customs Organization, USAID. URL: http://ictsolutions.wcoomdpublications.org/ (date of the request: 05.04.2019).
  32. Report of the Capacity Building Committee. 9th Session of the Capacity Building Committee, 26 — 28 February 2018. Doc.  HC0119E1a. Brussels, 20 April
  33. Mozer Sergei. Digital Customs. WCO Experience: monograph /S.V. Mozer. Moscow: Publishing House of the Russian Customs Academy, 2019. 266 pages. URL: http://customs-academy.net/?p=12388

[1] Mozer Sergei. Reports, scientific publications, projects. URL: http://customs-academy.net/?page_id=10398

[2] Kadyrkulov M.A., Mozer Sergei, Lipatova N.G. The World Customs Organization asa Modern Institute of Improvement of Customs Regulation and Trade Facilitation: a monograph. Lyubertsy: Publishing house of the Russian Customs Academy, 2017. URL:  http://customs-academy.net/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/Мон.-ВТамО_Кадыркулов_Мозер_Липатова_.pdf

[3] Capacity Building Committee. Terms of Reference for the Capacity Building Committee. Confirmed by the Council – 1 July 2009. Established : April 2010. World Customs Organization. – P. 4. URL:  http://www.wcoomd.org/en/about-us/wco-working-bodies/capacity_building/capacity_building_committee.aspx (date of the request: 04.02.2019).

[4] The Future of Customs: What are the Organizational Development Needs as We Move Towards Digital Customs and Technologies. Item II on the Agenda. 7th Session of the Capacity Building Committee. 11 — 13 April 2016. Doc. HC0083E1a. Brussels, 14 March 2016.

[5] Summary. The Future of Customs: What are the Organizational Development Needs as We Move Towards Digital Customs and Technologies. Item II on the Agenda. 7th Session of the Capacity Building Committee. 11 — 13 April 2016. Doc. HC0083E1a. Brussels, 14 March 2016. – P.1.

[6] See Item 9. Digital Customs: Bridging Digital Divide. (Item XII.b on the Agenda). 2nd Meeting of the WCO Working Group on E-Commerce (10 – 13 October 2017). Doc. EM0019E1a. Brussels, 12 September 2017. P. 2-3.

[7] Item 25. Report to the Capacity Building Committee. 7th Session of the Capacity Building Committee. 11 — 13 April 2016. Doc. HC0093E1a. Brussels, 14 June 2016. – P. 4.

[8] Presentation, report Competence approach in personnel management.URL: https://myslide.ru/presentation/skachat-kompetentnostnyj-podxod-v-upravlenii-personalom (date of the request: 04.02.2019).

[9] Types of organization competencies. URL:  https://studopedia.org/11-99050.html (date of the request: 04.02.2019).

[10] Presentation, report Competence approach in personnel management. URL: https://myslide.ru/presentation/skachat-kompetentnostnyj-podxod-v-upravlenii-personalom (date of the request: 04.02.2019).

[11] Types of organization competencies. URL:  https://studopedia.org/11-99050.html (date of the request: 04.02.2019).

[12]   Item 12. A Strategic Approach to Support ICT-enabled Customs and Cross-Border Regulatory Reform through WCO Tools, Instruments, and Guidelines. Digital Customs. Item XII on the Agenda.75th Session of the Policy Commission. Doc. SP0560E1a. Brussels, 14 June 2016.

[13] See. Pandey P.N. Digital Customs. Strategic Approach to Support ICT-enabled Customs and Cross-Border  Regulatory Reforms through WCO Tools, Instruments and Guidelines: Presentation. 7th Session of the Capacity Building Committee. Brussels, 11 — 13 April 2016. [10; Слайд 5].

[14] Item 1. The Future of Customs: What are the Organizational Development Needs as We Move Towards Digital Customs and Technologies. Item II on the Agenda. 7th Session of the Capacity Building Committee. 11 — 13 April 2016. Doc. HC0083E1a. Brussels, 14 March 2016. – P. 2.

[15] Item 3. The Future of Customs: What are the Organizational Development Needs as We Move Towards Digital Customs and Technologies. Item II on the Agenda. 7th Session of the Capacity Building Committee. 11 — 13 April 2016. Doc. HC0083E1a. Brussels, 14 March 2016. – P. 2.

[16] WCO Strategic Plan for the years 2016-2017 to 2018-2019. World Customs Organization.  URL: http://www.wcoomd.org/en/about-us/what-is-the-wco/strategic-plan.aspx (date of the request: 04.04.2019).

[17] IT Guide for Executives. World customs Organization. June, 2018. URL:  http://www.wcoomd.org/en/topics/facilitation/instrument-and-tools/tools/it-guide-for-executives.aspx (date of the request: 07.03.2019).

[18] WCO Compendium. How to Build a Single Window Environment. Volume 1. The Executive Guide.  World Customs Organization. URL: https://www.icao.int/Meetings/AirCargoDevelopmentForum-Togo/Documents/SingleWindow_Compendium_Vol_1_E.pdf (date of the request: 04.04.2019).

[19] International Convention on the Simplification and Harmonization of Customs Procedures. URL: http://www.wcoomd.org/en/topics/facilitation/instrument-and-tools/conventions/pf_revised_kyoto_conv/kyoto_new/preamble.aspx#ar8 (date of the request: 04.04.2019).

[20] SAFE Framework of Standards to Secure and Facilitate Global Trade. World Customs Organization.  URL: http://www.wcoomd.org/-/media/wco/public/global/pdf/topics/facilitation/instruments-and-tools/tools/safe-package/safe-framework-of-standards.pdf?la=en (date of the request: 04.04.2019).

[21] Model Bilateral Agreement on Mutual Administrative Assistance in Customs matters. World Customs Organization.  URL: http://www.wcoomd.org/en/topics/enforcement-and-compliance/instruments-and-tools/~/media/DFAAF3B7943E4A53B12475C7CE54D8BD.ashx (date of the request: 04.04.2019).

[22] Customs Guidelines on Integrated Supply Chain Management. (ISCM Guidelines). World Customs Organization.  URL: http://www.wcoomd.org/~/media/D81B2807C64A4B669942F88D51D5FCF6.ashx (date of the request: 04.04.2019).

[23] WCO Data Model. World Customs Organization. URL: http://www.wcoomd.org/en/topics/facilitation/instrument-and-tools/~/link.aspx?_id=3BD324CD868948748147E210059706BC&_z=z (date of the request: 04.04.2019);

[24] Application of information and communication technology. Chapter 7. General Annex Guidelines. Kyoto Convention. URL: http://www.wcoomd.org/-/media/wco/public/global/pdf/topics/facilitation/instruments-and-tools/tools/ict-guidelines/ict-guidelines.pdf?db=web (date of the request: 01.03.2019); General information: ICT Guidelines. World Customs Organization. URL: http://www.wcoomd.org/en/Topics/Facilitation/Instrument%20and%20Tools/Tools/ICT%20Guidelines (date of the request: 01.03.2019).

[25] Coordinated Border Management Compendium. World Customs Organization.  URL: http://www.wcoomd.org/-/media/wco/public/global/pdf/topics/facilitation/instruments-and-tools/tools/safe-package/cbm-compendium.pdf?la=en (date of the request: 04.04.2019).

[26] WCO Compendium. How to Build a Single Window Environment. Volume 2. The Professional Practice Guide.  World Customs Organization. URL: https://www.icao.int/Meetings/AirCargoDevelopmentForum-Togo/Documents/SingleWindow_Compendium_Vol_2_E.pdf (date of the request: 04.04.2019).

[27] How to Build an Advance Passenger Information (API) / Passenger Name Record (PNR) Programme. Guidance for Customs Administrations.  World Customs Organization. URL: http://www.wcoomd.org/-/media/wco/public/global/pdf/topics/facilitation/instruments-and-tools/tools/api-guidelines-and-pnr-doc/guidance-for-customs-administrations-on-how-to-build-an-api-pnr-programme.pdf (date of the request: 04.04.2019).

[28] WCO Cargo Targeting System. World Customs Organization. URL: http://www.wcoomd.org/en/topics/wco-implementing-the-wto-atf/~/media/6E2118554F6A43DB83A07C603494C627.ashx (date of the request: 04.04.2019).

[29] Technology Network. World Customs Organization. URL: https://ten.wcoomd.org/products?field_categories%5B0%5D=13&ref=13 (date of the request: 04.04.2019).

[30] See The WCO Tool in the Fight Against Counterweighting. The World Customs Organization. URL: http://www.wcoipm.org/__resources/userfiles/file/IPM-Brochure.pdf (date of the request: 04.04.2019).

[31] See. CEP. Compliance and Enforcement. The World Customs Organization.  URL: http://www.wcoomd.org/~/media/wco/public/global/pdf/topics/enforcement-and-compliance/overview/wco_cep_online-brochure_en_for-hyperlinks.pdf?db=web  (date of the request: 05.03.2019).

[32] I2C — WCO Information & Intelligence Centre. World Customs Organization. URL: (date of the request: http://www.wcoomd.org/es-es/topics/enforcement-and-compliance/instruments-and-tools/i2c.aspx  (date of the request: 05.04.2019).

[33] GNC UBs can be defined as a functional subset of the Global Network of Customs, offering a tangible value proposition for Customs administrations by meeting specific needs through the exchange of information (Armen Manukyan. WCO-UNESCAP 3rd UNNExT Masterclass: Digital Customs and Single Windows in the Context of WTO TFA Cheonan, 19-28 April 2017.  – Slide.8. URL: https://www.unescap.org/sites/default/files/27%20Apr%202017%20-%20WCO%20Globally%20Networked%20Customs.pdf (date of the request: 05.04.2019).

[34] Item 3. The Future of Customs: What are the Organizational Development Needs as We Move Towards Digital Customs and Technologies. Item II on the Agenda. 7th Session of the Capacity Building Committee. 11 — 13 April 2016. Doc. HC0083E1a. Brussels, 14 March 2016. – P. 2.

[35] See Report to the Policy Commission.  Policy Commission, 74th Session.  Punta Cana, 7-9 December 2015. Doc. SP0550E1a. Brussels, 27 January 2016.

[36] Item 5. The Future of Customs: What are the Organizational Development Needs as We Move Towards Digital Customs and Technologies. Item II on the Agenda. 7th Session of the Capacity Building Committee. 11 — 13 April 2016. Doc. HC0083E1a. Brussels, 14 March 2016. – P. 2.

[37] Item 7. The Future of Customs: What are the Organizational Development Needs as We Move Towards Digital Customs and Technologies. Item II on the Agenda. 7th Session of the Capacity Building Committee. 11 — 13 April 2016. Doc. HC0083E1a. Brussels, 14 March 2016. – P. 3.

[38] Items 13-14 The Future of Customs: What are the Organizational Development Needs as We Move Towards Digital Customs and Technologies. Item II on the Agenda. 7th Session of the Capacity Building Committee. 11 — 13 April 2016. Doc. HC0083E1a. Brussels, 14 March 2016. – P. 4.

[39] Pandey P.N. Digital Customs. Strategic Approach to Support ICT-enabled Customs and Cross-Border  Regulatory Reforms through WCO Tools, Instruments and Guidelines: Presentation. 7th Session of the Capacity Building Committee. 11 — 13 April 2016. Brussels, 14 June 2016. – Slide 8.

[40] 1. Planning, optimization and modeling of business processes in the field of customs.

  1. Preparation of detailed specifications of the user’s system based on the established requirements of the customs administration and international standards.
  2. Carry out cost assessments and assessments for ICT development and the integration of new technologies and an assessment of the future impact on operational costs.
  3. Providing support for procurement and own development decisions.
  4. Assessment of the quality of IT services and the management of relevant contracts.
  5. Indication and management of ICT infrastructures and updates.
  6. Identification and reduction of risks in the implementation of ICT solutions and new technologies, as well as ensuring business continuity;
  7. Definition and implementation of policy in the field of standardization and harmonization of data, data integration and compatibility;
  8. Preparation of accompanying documentation on ICT solutions and new technologies;
  9. Support change management processes;
  10. Definition and implementation of policies and solutions for data security;
  11. Coordination of ICT organizational developments with broader national e-government initiatives;
  12. Acquaintance with new technologies.

[41] See Kadyrkulov   M.A., Mozer S.V. Improvement of instruments of customs administration: international and legal aspect (The Revised Kyoto Convention Management Committee): monograph / MA. Kadyrkulov,S.V. Mozer. Moscow: Publishing House of the Russian Customs Academy, 2018. – P.22. URL   http://customs-academy.net/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/Kadyrkulov-Mozer_Kyoto.pdf (date of the request: 12.03.2019).