Sergei Mozer, Ph.D. at law
Senior Researcher in the Research Institute of the Russian Customs Academy.
Published: Problems of Economics and Legal Practice. — № 5 (October). — 2019. — pages 293-300. © S.V. Mozer, 2019
When using the article referance is required
Purpose. To detail the activities of the Permanent Technical Committee of the World Customs Organization on the formation of the legal institute of digital customs.
Design/methodology/approach. The research article is devoted to the issues of improving the instruments of customs regulation within the framework of the functioning of the PTC WCO. The subject of the research is the digital customs institute. It is comprehensively considered the PTC approaches in 2016 in terms of the formation of digital customs as an integrated legal phenomenon under the theme «Digital Customs — Progressive Engagement»: WCO Data Model, Single Window Mechanism, Data Security, modernization of management in customs using information and communication technologies, the Global Customs Network, as well as regional approaches to digital customs.
Social implications. The introduction of the digital customs institute in the EEU law and customs regulation as a whole is aimed at optimizing customs operations and simplifying trade procedures.
Practical meaning. The results of the study are of interest to the customs block of the Eurasian Economic Commission (EEC), can be used within the organization of the work of the Information Management Sub-Committee and the WCO Permanent Technical Committee in the context of the EEC — WCO international customs cooperation. The article is recommended to researchers, as well as experts from the Customs Administrations of the EEU Member States, whose activities are related to the improvement of customs regulation, modernization of the digital customs institute, as well as international customs law.
Originality/value. The research material is based on an analysis of the practical aspects of the WCO’s activities and is a continuation of scientific and practical publications on the development of the digital customs institute within the framework of the WCO’s activities.
Keywords: The World Customs Organization, the WCO, the Eurasian Economic Union, EEU, the Eurasian Economic Commission, EEC, Permanent Technical Committee, e-Customs, digital Customs, customs regulation, customs administration, international customs law, customs.
In a previous research article on the improvement of the digital customs institute, we touched on the activities of the Permanent Technical Committee (hereinafter — PTC, Committee) of the World Customs Organization (hereinafter — WCO, Organization). The main conclusions were formulated on the basis of a study of the WCO materials submitted to the international customs community at the 211/212 session of the PTC on March 2 – 4, 2016. However, a substantive analysis of the subject of digital customs in the context of the PTC activities remained outside the scope of this material. In particular, PTC linked digital customs with the WCO Data Model, a «Single Window» mechanism, data security, modernization of customs management using information and communication technologies (hereinafter — ICT), the Globally Network Customs (GNC), and regional approaches to digital customs. We believe that a comprehensive understanding of the activities of the WCO PTC in the designated area is possible with a deeper disclosure of the details of this issue and the Organization’s existing approaches.
The purpose of this article is to substantively examine the approaches of the Permanent Technical Committee for the development of the Digital Customs Institute. We turn to the study of the issue in the framework of the above identified issues.
- The WCO Data model as a promotion strategy for international organizations, regional organizations and the private sector
Along with the subject of Big data and Data mining, the World Customs Organization, in considering the issue of digital customs, highlights the WCO Data model and, no less important, focuses on the need to involve international organizations, regional entities and private sector representatives. This issue would be considered at the 211/212 session of the Permanent Technical Committee in the period from 2 — 4 March 2016 in Brussels, at the WCO Headquarters.
At the PTC meeting, the WCO Secretariat, in considering the issue of Digital Customs — Progressive Engagement, presented an analytical report «The WCO Data Model — Promotion Strategy for International Organizations, Regional Organizations and the Private Sector». The development and support of the WCO Data model is aimed at ensuring a consistent approach to the regulatory exchange of information for the B2G (business-government), G2G (government-government), and G2B (government-business) relationships. In the context of digital customs, experts of the WCO note, the WCO Data model is the «language of customs» for the development of interconnectedness and modernization of ICT. The Data Model Project Team (DMPT), which is the WCO body responsible for maintaining the WCO Data model, focused its work on developing the technical aspects of standards. Further development of non-technical documentation is needed to clarify the content of the WCO Data model.
In view of the central role of ICT in the «Digital Customs» theme of 2016, the WCO Data model, which is an important technical building block for ICT interaction, according to the WCO, is a key part of the relevant work and customs modernization and development in general. To ensure the further orderly development and future dominance of the WCO Data model, it is necessary to ensure a strong and comprehensive standard-setting process as well as increasing the availability of information and disseminated documentation. Based on a survey conducted by the Secretariat, the Data model is currently being used in more than 124 countries for various projects and systems. Examples of using the WCO Data model include states using ASYCUDA-based systems, electronic customs systems, a national «single window» environment, or data exchange between countries. In many cases, customs is the only government agency at the national and / or regional level that uses the Data model, while only a few countries have also adopted a nationwide approach to using the Data model, especially to simplify further implementation of the «single window» solution.
It should be added that the WCO Data model is an initiative of the World Customs Organization to simplify and standardize data requirements for cross-border regulating authorities, including customs authorities.
The WCO Data Model is designed to provide a complete set of data and data structures for customs and related institutions that are responsible for agriculture and the environment. To provide a mechanism for managing and maintaining work related to the Data Model, a separate working body has been created at the WCO — the Data Model Projects Team (DMPT) (hereinafter — the Group). The WCO believes that customs cannot develop business process models for non-customs cross-border regulatory processes. Therefore, the participation of international partner organizations is important. The partners that may be involved in such work, according to the WCO, may include regional organizations such as the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), the Trade and Economic Union of Mercosur (MERCOSUR) and Eurasian Economic Commission (EEC). In the light of the foregoing, the urgent issue is to create a mechanism to increase the involvement of international partner organizations and non-customs agencies in the work of the Group, as well as exchange experiences and examples of how they promote the Data Model in government partner organizations, the private sector and potential stakeholders at the national level.
- Single Window
In the context of the topic of digital customs, the WCO Secretariat at the 211/212 meeting of the PTC presented the analytical document «Single Window Compendium Supplement for Training and Promotion», which serves as an additional training package for national and regional technical assistance and institutional development events. The Secretariat has requested Members to provide recommendations on the scope of the Supplement. This is what the WCO says about the relationship between digital customs and «single window». The «single window» collection remains the «flagship» tool on the subject under consideration, providing authoritative and detailed information on various aspects related to the development of the «single window» environment. The Single Window Supplement will also help the goal of the digital customs concept, which aims to support the Administrations of the WCO Member countries in understanding and applying the instruments, tools and guidelines related to ICT that have already been developed by the WCO.
It is worth noting the fact that delegates are not discussing digital customs as a complex phenomenon, but a «single window» mechanism. In the WCO opinion,
the «single window» tools (Compendium, Supplement) contribute to the goals of the digital customs concept, which aims to support the Administrations of the WCO Member countries in understanding and applying the instruments, tools and guidelines related to ICT and developed already by the WCO. At the same time, the main question «what is digital customs» and how the institution of digital customs is related to the «single window» institution remains outside the scope of discussions of the Permanent Technical Committee.
We need to pay attention to the decisions of the Permanent Technical Committee on the considered issue. It would seem that they should relate to the problems of digital customs. However, in fact the decisions concern the mechanism of the «single window». In particular, the PTC
- noted the contribution of the delegates and encouraged the WCO Member countries to share their suggestions and practices with the WCO Secretariat;
- agreed to use the Single Window Supplement as a training material at national and regional workshops;
- and also took note of the presentation on the implementation of the «single window».
In our opinion, discussions on digital customs should focus not only on the important results of the work of the WCO working bodies, associated with the implementation of the «single window» mechanism, but also on digital customs directly. We believe that the «single window» project should be viewed in relation to the digital customs institute.
- Data security
It should be recalled that in the framework of the 74th meeting the Policy Commission in December 2015 raised the sensitive issue of cybersecurity and confidentiality when establishing digital collaboration within a «single window» or in the context of regional integration. Accordingly, the WCO Secretariat prepared an analytical paper «Data Security». The document covers a number of important points of data security, and its structure is presented by six themes:
- Rapid use of data and the importance of managing information security.
- Cross-cutting information security requirements.
- International standards of information security management.
- General security requirements and digital trust.
- Necessary steps.
The WCO Secretariat notes that the concept of digital customs encourages customs to introduce ICT solutions to more effectively and efficiently achieve goals. The digital environment allows Customs authorities to process data from various stakeholders, including traders, who are based on regulatory requirements governing movement of goods and vehicles across borders as well as government partner agencies in the context of a «single window» environment or other exchange of information, both nationally and internationally. In addition, the Customs authorities may receive data obtained as a result of control measures such as the results of physical examinations, image scanning analyzes, case management or post-entry audit.
The data collected and stored in the database is processed to provide useful information for many purposes, including levels of compliance of participants of foreign economic activity, risk assessments for goods or passengers, management of trusted authorized economic operators (AEO) as well as automatic calculation of duties, taxes and fees. In addition, this information is also useful for improving the performance of an organization through business intelligence and analytics. Given their critical function, data is a valuable asset for an organization that needs to be managed through proper management. In the opinion of the WCO Secretariat, protecting data from security threats is an important aspect of management that requires proper addressing to preserve integrity, confidentiality, and data availability. Information security management requires an integrated approach, both a high-level strategic understanding and technical expertise to eliminate all possible security risks in the implementation of ICT. The strategic aspect of information security management provides a holistic approach to security at the organizational level, which includes leadership at the senior management level, proper security management planning, evaluation, and continuous improvement. At the technical level, various practical methodologies and technologies of security management transfer the strategic direction to the implementation environment.
In order to support Member Countries, the Organization has developed a ICT Guide to the Kyoto Convention. The WCO believes that this tool provides the basic principles for the use of ICT in Customs administrations. Chapter 11 of the Guide specifically addresses ICT security. It also provides an overview of the necessary measures that should be taken in managing information security. Since Customs Administrations are not unique when touching a question on ICT security requirements, the Guide recommends that Customs authorities refer to established international standards in this area, for example, the ISO 27000 family of Information Security Management Systems (ISMS) standards, including:
- ISO 27001 «Information Security Management System – Requirement».
- ISO 27002 «Code of practice for information security management».
- ISO 27005 «Information Security Risk Management».
- Digital trust
Let’s move on to the issue of general security requirements and digital trust. The concept of digital customs with its sub-theme «Progressive Engagement» suggests that the introduction of technology should not only focus on the customs environment, but also include coordination with other partner Cross-Border Regulatory Agencies (CBRA). In a digitally supported environment, such as a
«single-window» environment or the Globally Network Customs Utility block, the principle of coordinated border management can cover:
- general structure of interaction (through the use of the WCO Data Model);
- business process management;
- and general performance management.
The WCO believes that information security requirements are also an important part of digital coordination in order to guarantee the level of trust for each participating agency to join the collaboration. In this configuration, a participating agency, including customs, may not have control over how others provide information security and potentially expose their own systems to security threats. General information security requirements, when all participating agencies agree to manage information security, will certainly help to reduce these risks and increase digital trust between all participants.
As part of the discussions at the PTC, the position was expressed, that one of the goals of information security management is to increase digital trust in digital cooperation and information sharing by all interested parties. A clear explanation of which data is confidential and which data may be publicly available as well as for what purpose and whom this data may be transferred to, is important. In addition, the WCO should provide Member countries with guidance in order to increase confidence in the exchange of information between interested parties.
- Modernization of management in customs through the use of information — communication technologies
We should note that any presentations and materials reflecting practice of Customs administration in the WCO Member states on the development of a particular institution of customs law, customs regulation are a special subject of research performed by practitioners and scientists. They allow to get a complete picture, to understand the system of elements of the analyzed institute. It should be recalled that at the initial stage, the Moroccan Customs Service made an important contribution to the vision of the digital customs institute, whose representative voiced national approaches to the formation of this complex phenomenon at the 74th meeting of the WCO Policy Commission. In turn, South Africa and the United States presented their approaches in this sphere at the 211/212 session of the PTC.
A delegate from the South African Revenue Service (SARS) spoke about the use of mobile technologies in the process of customs clearance. The goal of SARS is to improve further process simplification and ensure the quality of services provided by customs through the transition from manual to automated processes. It was also necessary to develop an innovative culture of organization based on integrity and professionalism. To implement this model, the Tax Administration focused on optimizing processes and using technology as a tool to move from manual processing to digital processes. In the modernization process, all interested parties from the private sector were involved from the conceptualization stages to the testing stage, before moving on to implementation.
The Tax Service expert, talking about the improvement of customs administration, drew the attention of the delegates to 4 components that should be evaluated in the context of digitalization:
- policy (search for improvements in the conducted policy to simplify procedures / process / operations);
- human resources (develop a culture that can innovate, educate and continually improve);
- procedures / operations (to compose, understand and optimize processes / operations);
- technology (convert from manual to digital).
According to experts from South Africa, risk management is central to all these processes, and the RMS has been integrated into the individual inspection regime. At the same time, the WCO Data model was an integral part of all customs modernization processes and in collaboration with other government agencies for the exchange of information as well as with a broader perspective of using the Data model at the regional level.
Some of the benefits of digitizing customs procedures were introduced by SARS in 2013 include:
- drastically reduced paper use;
- a significant reduction in physical inspection time;
- a trader can get an answer in just 7 seconds if there is no risk.
The Customs Connect program is another procedure that the Tax Service of South Africa implements in the process of customs clearance, and which has a regional impact. It includes South Africa, Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia and Swaziland and allows for the automatic electronic transfer of trade information prior to the arrival of goods which allows the relevant Customs administrations to conduct risk assessments and compare data.
It is worth noting that in this case we are talking about the institute of preliminary information which is implemented in South Africa as part of the institution of digital customs. Thus, digital customs as a complex phenomenon finds a clearer shape due to the positioning of the practical aspects of the activities of Customs administrations.
- Global Network of Customs Handbook
A draft Global Customs of Network Handbook was presented at the 211/212 meeting of the Permanent Technical Committee. First of all, the WCO Secretariat
noted that within the framework of the digital customs concept, it was intended to provide a single handbook to Member states for a holistic understanding of all the tools, standards and guidelines for WCO related to ICT, and how they are related to cross-border regulation and this area, — how information is exchanged in a structured way using standards, protocols and guidelines to achieve interaction between stakeholders in different countries, between customs and also trade.
According to the author opinion, at PC session the concept of digital customs was not limited to the exchange of information through standards, protocols and guidelines for achieving interaction between stakeholders in different countries, between customs as well as with trade. Accordingly, the reduction of digital customs to the sphere of information exchange between customs and interested parties does not quite correctly interpret the very idea of developing the institution of digital customs. We proceed from the fact that digital customs includes a wider range of issues, and it should not be limited only to information exchange issues.
In the Secretariat paper «GNC Handbook. Digital Customs – Progressive Engagement», prepared for the 211/212 meeting of the PTC (March 2 — 4, 2016), it is stated that in December 2015, the Policy Commission indicated that the Global Network of Customs plays a key role in digital customs. The Policy Commission also stated that the three-year GNC feasibility study provided detailed guidance on IT options and solutions, business processes, legal aspects, governance mechanisms, and institutional development to enable implementation. The Policy Commission agreed that the GNC also allowed to develop global standards that could support digital customs efforts, and that the Global Network of Customs should be given new impetus, including for regional integration.
The WCO Secretariat rightly indicates that the GNC lies at the heart of the whole process of developing standards that will enable Member countries to improve information sharing and interoperability between IT systems around the world.
- Big Data and Data Mining
On March 4, 2016 a joint session 211/212 of the Permanent Technical Committee and the 35th session of the Enforcement Committee took place. During the session, it was noted that the agenda of the joint event reflects the main cross-cutting and priority areas of the WCO activities. The Secretariat officials turned their attention to digital customs and noted that the joint session would look at this topic with a special focus on Big data and potential opportunities, both from a customs point of view and from a business point of view. In this regard, individual events were underlined, in particular with regard to the WCO Data Model, the «single window». In addition to this, Member states called for the continued progressive participation and use of ICT to support the implementation of the WTO Trade Facilitation Agreement.
A separate result of the meeting of the PTC is the report of the WCO Secretariat on the Work Program on Digital Customs under the WCO Strategic Plan. We will research this question in the next paragraph of the monograph.
Looking ahead, we note that the subsequent analysis of the results of the WCO activities in terms of the development of the digital customs institute allows us to trace the formation and transformation of e-customs into digital ones in dynamics. It is impossible not to notice that customs is becoming intellectual. New elements of the digital customs system as well as the proposals of the WCO on the interface of new technologies, for example, in the field of e-commerce with modern customs, clarify the picture of modern customs, a reference model of which can be developed in the near future by the international customs community. Among the new phenomena that need to be integrated into customs activities, the WCO highlights Big data and Data mining. The above follows from the results of the joint meeting of the PTC — Enforcement Committee, held on March 4, 2016 in Brussels. The meeting notes that at the 74th session in December 2015, the Policy Commission held breakout sessions to discuss in depth the Digital customs concept, identifying a number of issues including: what are the latest or emerging technological developments that can provide new opportunities or influence how does customs currently simplify trade and perform regulatory tasks, etc. The new technologies mentioned in the course of the discussions included Big data, in particular, (1) the substantial resources needed to use them, especially in terms of powerful equipment and proper training of personnel, (2) the possibility of a significant change in the role of Data analysts and targeted experts and (3) how to manage and optimize this information for risk management purposes. While appreciating the good feedback from the sectional groups that confirm the importance of the Digital customs concept, The WCO believes that Data mining and Big data are areas to which customs can move in its development. The Policy Commission invited the Secretariat to take into account many of the issues raised during the breakout sessions and to draw the attention of the PTC and the Enforcement Committee to inform them about future work in this important area.
The WCO materials state that during 2016, which is devoted to the digital customs, Customs administrations were recommended to actively demonstrate and promote the use of ICT. Under the slogan «Digital Customs: Progressive Engagement», Customs administrations continue to develop digital solutions and services as well as interact with partner government agencies and other stakeholders to help to improve team performance and rethink how to accomplish their tasks using modern and new technologies. In this context, «Big data» also needs to be included in such concepts as modern technologies.
In this context we note that Big data entails large data sets that are considered difficult to collect, manage, and process (including maintaining quality, adding value, and ensuring reuse over time) with traditional models of managing
and processing data within a reasonable or acceptable time. This is just a general description. It should be stated that there is no official definition of the term «Big data». It is believed that Big data becomes an important resource that can lead to new knowledge, stimulate the creation of value, new business processes, make informed decisions and, possibly, development in the future.
Big data also means designation of structured data of huge volumes and significant diversity effectively processed by horizontally scalable software tools that appeared in the late 2000s and are alternative to traditional database management systems and solutions of the Business Intelligence. In a broad sense, «Big data» is referred to as a socio-economic phenomenon associated with the emergence of technological capabilities to analyze huge amounts of data, in some problem areas — the entire global data volume, and the resulting transformational implications. «Three Vs» are traditionally distinguished as defining characteristics for Big data: volume (in the sense of physical volume), velocity (in terms of both growth rate, and the need for high-speed processing and obtaining results), variety (in the sense of the simultaneous processing of various types of structured and semi-structured data); variations and interpretations of this feature appeared later.
By «Data mining» (sometimes called data or knowledge detection) is the process of analyzing data from different perspectives and summarizing them into useful information. Data mining (Russian — in-depth data analysis) is a collective name used to denote a set of methods for detecting previously unknown, non-trivial, practically useful and accessible interpretation of knowledge necessary for decision-making in various spheres of human activity. The term was introduced by Gregory Pyatetsky-Shapiro in 1989. The English word combination «Data mining» has not yet an established Russian translation. When transmitting in Russian, the following phrases are used: sifting information, data mining, data extraction. More complete and accurate is the phrase «knowledge discovery in databases» (KDD).
The WCO points out that Big data is similar to the concept of the Internet of things: a network connection of physical objects that are not computers in the classical sense. The term «Internet of things» is identified to some extent with RFID as a method of communication, although it may also include other sensor technologies, wireless technologies, or rapid response codes (QR). An object that can represent itself in digital form can be considered something more than the object itself, since this object is associated not only with the owner or operators (controllers), but also with surrounding objects, and is also integrated into a specific database. It is no exaggeration to say that with the Internet of things the physical world becomes one big information system.
Among topical questions about the role of Big data and Data mining within the framework of customs administration, the WCO focuses on legal issues. Thus, the further development of digital customs will largely depend on the creation of an appropriate legal framework. Among other things, privacy protection should always be a matter of increased attention, assuming that large amounts of data relating to the socio-economic activities of individuals can be easily collected, stored and used for various purposes, both private and public. The WCO assumes that all people in their daily lives should be more aware of cases when their personal information is transmitted and recorded regardless of their desires. Similarly, all data on individual identifications and actions must be fully protected legally and technically, so that they can be used only for the purposes for which they are collected.
As noted above, today it is quite difficult to determine the exact meaning of the term «Big data», since this phenomenon can be given using different approaches. In any case, Big data require certain analytical tools as well as technologies for processing them. In this regard, Big data will remain external and irrelevant to the category of data, unless Customs administrations want to include them in the risk management process necessary to conduct day-to-day operations to control and simplify procedures. However, Big data imply that their use in more efficient way can change the functioning and expand the boundaries of Customs services. Defining the next steps in the development of modern customs, the PTC experts summarize that Big data is not a static concept. The process of their application is still evolving, and can significantly affect the public and private sector as well as daily life. Thus, it can be argued that Big data alone will probably not change customs operations; however, active efforts by customs to incorporate Big data into their work will contribute to this. The key to turn Big data into live topics is how customs can use them in practice. That is, to apply Big data in their activities and, thus, explore the possibility of rethinking in terms of how they work with digital tools in action.
The WCO Secretariat experts note that e-commerce is an environment with a large amount of data. Customs authorities should move from electronic processing of customs declarations and control over physical goods to using the Big data environment using data mining and predictive analytics. Creating a network with new and emerging classes of economic operators in the e-commerce supply chain, customs should be able to improve access to commercial information
directly or indirectly related to trading operations in order to expand risk management capabilities through the effective use of a wide range of data that are common among e-commerce businesses.
Based on the foregoing, we formulate conclusions.
- The role of the WCO Permanent Technical Committee in the formation of the Digital Customs Institute is, no doubt, significant. At the initial stage, the institute under study was identified with such issues as the WCO Data Model, the «Single Window» mechanism, data security, modernization of customs management using information and communication technologies, the Globally Network Customs, as well as regional approaches to digital customs.
- At the same time, the PTС materials that we examined do not answer the question of what is meant by the term «digital customs» and how it relates, for example, to the «single widow» mechanism, Big data or the Globally Network Customs. These topics require substantive study in conjunction with the Digital Customs Institute.
- The WCO at the time of the review by the PTC of the indicated topic voiced certain characteristics (phenomena, mechanisms, progressive technologies, key areas, etc.), as well as a conceptual framework that complement the comprehensive picture of the institute of digital customs being developed. These elements are subject to subsequent comprehensive legal analysis and subsequent positioning within the digital customs agenda.
- Introduction to the law enforcement practice of the listed legal, technical, technological phenomena, as well as managerial decisions, is associated with the modernization of customs legislation.
LIST OF SOURCED USED
- Mozer Sergei. Improvement of the instruments of customs regulation (digital customs) within the framework of the Permanent Technical Committee of the World Customs Organization // Social and political sciences. – № 4 (August). – 2019. URL. http://customs-academy.net/?p=12910
- Promotional Strategy to International Organizations, Regional Entities and Private Sector. WCO Data Model. Item II. (b) on the Agenda. Digital customs – Progressive engagement. Permanent Technical Committee 211th/212th Sessions, 2-4 March 2016. Doc. Brussels, 04 February 2016.
- WCO Data Model. Digital Customs — Progressive engagement. 211th/212th Sessions of the Permanent Technical Committee, 2 — 4 March 2016. Doc. PC0448E1a. Brussels, 04 February 2016.
- Summary Report. 211th/212th Sessions of the Permanent Technical Committee, 2-3 March 2016. Doc. Brussels, 11 March 2016.
- Single Window Compendium Supplement for Training and Promotion. 211th/212th Sessions of the Permanent Technical Committee, 2-3 March 2016. Doc. PC0435E1a. Brussels, 1 February 2016.
- Data Security. (Item II (d) on the Agenda). 211th/212th Sessions of the Permanent Technical Committee, 2 — 4 March 2016. Doc. PC0436E1a. Brussels, 2 February 2016.
- Application of information and communication technology. Chapter 7. General Annex Guidelines. Kyoto Convention. URL: http://www.wcoomd.org/-/media/wco/public/global/pdf/topics/facilitation/instruments-and-tools/tools/ict-guidelines/ict-guidelines.pdf?db=web (date of the request: 01.03.2019);
- General information: ICT Guidelines. World Customs Organization. URL: http://www.wcoomd.org/en/Topics/Facilitation/Instrument%20and%20Tools/Tools/ICT%20Guidelines (date of the request: 01.03.2019).
- Armen Manukyan. WCO-UNESCAP 3rd UNNExT Masterclass: Digital Customs and Single Windows in the Context of WTO TFA Cheonan, 19-28 April 2017. – Slide.8. URL: https://www.unescap.org/sites/default/files/27%20Apr%202017%20-%20WCO%20Globally%20Networked%20Customs.pdf (date of the request: 05.04.2019).
- GNC Handbook. Digital Customs – Progressive Engagement. (Item II. (f) on the Agenda). 211th/212th Sessions of the Permanent Technical Committee, 2-4 March 2016. Doc. Brussels, 2 February 2015.
- Big Data and Data Mining. Item IV.b on the Agenda. Digital customs – Progressive engagement. Joint PTC AND EC Session, 4 March 2016. Brussels, 29 February 2016.
- Big Data. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. URL: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%91%D0%BE%D0%BB%D1%8C%D1%88%D0%B8%D0%B5_%D0%B4%D0%B0%D0%BD%D0%BD%D1%8B%D0%B5 (date of the request: 11.03.2019).
- Data mining. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. URL: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Data_mining (date of the request: 11.03.2019).
- RFID (Engl. Radio Frequency Identification) // Материал из Википедии — свободной энциклопедии. URL: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/RFID (date of the request: 11.03.2019).
- Terms of Reference for Data Model Projects Team.
 Mozer Sergei. Improvement of the instruments of customs regulation (digital customs) within the framework of the Permanent Technical Committee of the World Customs Organization // Social and political sciences. – № 4 (August). – 2019. URL. http://customs-academy.net/?p=12910
 See Promotional Strategy to International Organizations, Regional Entities and Private Sector. WCO Data Model. Item II. (b) on the Agenda. Digital customs – Progressive engagement. Permanent Technical Committee 211th/212th Sessions , 2-4 March 2016. Doc. PC0448E1a. Brussels, 04 February 2016.
 WCO Data Model. Digital Customs – Progressive engagement. 211th/212th Sessions of the Permanent Technical Committee, 2-4 March 2016. Doc. PC0448E1a. Brussels, 04 February 2016.
 Item 17. Summary Report. 211th/212th Sessions of the Permanent Technical Committee, 2-3 March 2016. Doc. PC0449E1a. Brussels, 11 March 2016. – P.3.
 Item 2. Promotional Strategy to International Organizations, Regional Entities and Private Sector. WCO Data Model. Item II. (b) on the Agenda. Digital customs – Progressive engagement. Permanent Technical Committee 211th/212th Sessions , 2-4 March 2016. Doc. PC0448E1a. Brussels, 04 February 2016. – P.1.
 Item 17. Summary Report. 211th/212th Sessions of the Permanent Technical Committee, 2-3 March 2016. Doc. PC0449E1a. Brussels, 11 March 2016. – P.3.
 The Data Model Projects Team is established in order to provide the maintenance mechanisms for work relating to the WCO Data Model. The DMPT reports to the IMSC and supports the IMSC in its efforts to assist Members in implementing Information and Communication Technology (ICT) by co-operating with other WCO Working Bodies, other governmental and non-governmental international organizations, and promoting close co-operation with other international organizations, and international standards setting agencies for the interchange of Customs information among Customs administrations and between Customs administrations and trade participants. The DMPT is an open forum. All WCO Members may participate in the meeting. delegates from international organizations, non-governmental organizations, and private sector may register to attend as observer. (Terms of reference for the DMPT).
 Promotional Strategy to International Organizations, Regional Entities and Private Sector. WCO Data Model. Item II. (b) on the Agenda. Digital customs – Progressive engagement. Permanent Technical Committee 211th/212th Sessions, 2-4 March 2016. Doc. PC0448E1a. Brussels, 04 February 2016. – P. 20.
 Item 7. Ibid.
 Item 26. Summary Report. 211th/212th Sessions of the Permanent Technical Committee, 2-3 March 2016. Doc. PC0449E1a. Brussels, 11 March 2016. – P.5.
 Data Security. (Item II (d) on the Agenda). 211th/212th Sessions of the Permanent Technical Committee, 2 — 4 March 2016. Doc. PC0436E1a. Brussels, 2 February 2016.
 Item 2. Data Security. (Item II (d) on the Agenda). 211th/212th Sessions of the Permanent Technical Committee, 2 — 4 March 2016. Doc. PC0436E1a. Brussels, 2 February 2016. – P. 1.
 Application of information and communication technology. Chapter 7. General Annex Guidelines. Kyoto Convention. URL: http://www.wcoomd.org/-/media/wco/public/global/pdf/topics/facilitation/instruments-and-tools/tools/ict-guidelines/ict-guidelines.pdf?db=web (date of the request: 01.03.2019); General information: ICT Guidelines. World Customs Organization. URL: http://www.wcoomd.org/en/Topics/Facilitation/Instrument%20and%20Tools/Tools/ICT%20Guidelines (date of the request: 01.03.2019).
 Data Security. (Item II (d) on the Agenda). 211th/212th Sessions of the Permanent Technical Committee, 2 — 4 March 2016. Doc. PC0436E1a. Brussels, 2 February 2016. –P.12.
 Item 12. Data Security. (Item II (d) on the Agenda). 211th/212th Sessions of the Permanent Technical Committee, 2 — 4 March 2016. Doc. PC0436E1a. Brussels, 2 February 2016. – P. 3.
 Item 33. Summary Report. 211th/212th Sessions of the Permanent Technical Committee, 2-3 March 2016. Doc. PC0449E1a. Brussels, 11 March 2016. – P. 6.
 Item 37. Ibid. – P. 7.
 Item 46. Ibid. – P. 8.
 Item 2. GNC Handbook. Digital Customs – Progressive Engagement. (Item II. (f) on the Agenda). 211th/212th Sessions of the Permanent Technical Committee, 2-4 March 2016. Doc. PC0437E1a. Brussels, 2 February 2015. – P.1.
 Item 116. Summary Report. 211th/212th Sessions of the Permanent Technical Committee, 2-3 March 2016. Doc. PC0449E1a. Brussels, 11 March 2016. – P. 18.
 Item 1. Big Data and Data Mining. Item IV.b on the Agenda. Digital customs – Progressive engagement. Joint PTC AND EC Session, 4 March 2016. Brussels, 29 February 2016. – P. 1.
 Item 8. Ibid. – P. 2.
 Item 11. Big Data and Data Mining. Item IV.b on the Agenda. Digital customs – Progressive engagement. Joint PTC AND EC Session, 4 March 2016. Brussels, 29 February 2016. – P. 3.
 RFID (Engl. Radio Frequency IDentification, radio frequency identification) is a method of automatic identification of objects in which data stored in so-called transponders or RFID tags are read or written by means of radio signals // Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. URL: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/RFID (date of the request: 11.03.2019).
 Item 13. Big Data and Data Mining. Item IV.b on the Agenda. Digital customs – Progressive engagement. Joint PTC AND EC Session, 4 March 2016. Brussels, 29 February 2016. – P. 4.
 Item 14. Ibid. – P. 4.
 Item 23. Ibid. – P. 6.