IMPROVEMENT OF THE INSTITUTE OF DIGITAL CUSTOMS: ANALYSIS OF THE WCO MATURITY MODEL

Sergei Mozer

РУССКИЙ

Sergei Mozer, Ph.D. at law

Deputy Head of Division of Advanced Customs Technologies, Department of Customs Legislation of the Eurasian Economic Commission; Contact Person for Communication with the World Customs Organization.

Senior Researcher in the Research Institute of the Russian Customs Academy.

e-mail: moser@teloneum.net

Web: http://customs-academy.net/?page_id=10398

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Published: Problems of Economics and Legal Practice. — № 2, (April) — 2019. — pages 234 — 241.

© S.V. Mozer, 2019

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Annotation. The article deals with topical issues of the formation of the Digital customs institute at the World Customs Organization. The author analyzes the approaches of the international customs community to the creation of a Digital customs maturity model. The research material focuses on the elements of the Maturity model of digital customs and draws conclusions about its potential use within the frames of the development of this institution (instrument, phenomenon, mechanism) in the law of the Eurasian Economic Union. The research material is a matter of interest to a wide range of specialists whose activities are related to the development of the institute of electronic (digital) customs, the improvement of customs regulation, as well as international customs law.

Keywords: the World Customs Organization, the WCO, the Eurasian Economic Union, the EEU, the Eurasian Economic Commission, the EEC, electronic customs, e-customs,  digital customs, maturity model, digital customs maturity model, e-commerce, customs regulation, international customs law, customs, single window.

Today, experts of the Eurasian Economic Commission (hereinafter — EEC) are actively interacting with experts of the World Customs Organization (hereinafter — the WCO, Organization) on a wide range of issues of customs regulation and improvement of customs administration instruments. International standards, best practices of customs regulation in WCO Member states, as well as scientific and practical developments in this area are a special subject of study by our specialists and scientists. Indeed, for the development of the law of the Eurasian Economic Union (hereinafter — the EEU, the Union) in the field of customs, along with the interests of the EEU Member states, it is necessary to take into account international experience and modern instruments of customs regulation.

One of the important theme, that is being actively discussed today in the international customs community and, above all, in the WCO, is the development of the digital customs institution. It should be added that as part of the creation of a «single window» mechanism in the EEU Member states, the same issue was submitted to the discussion platform of the EEC customs block in 2018. We believe that in the near future the topic of forming the institution of digital customs in our Union will be updated, and any scientific and practical research will be useful for expert work at the international level. In the WCO, the issues of forming the digital customs institute are represented by 3 blocks: the Digital Customs Concept, the Digital Customs Maturity Model, and the Digital Customs Work Program.

This article analyzes the practical and scientific approaches to the creation of the Digital Customs Maturity Model. The author believes that the results of the study may be a matter of interest to EEC experts, as well as a number of WCO working bodies, such as the Information Management Sub-Committee, the Permanent Technical Committee and the WCO Council. Without a doubt, a

 

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comprehensive study of the institution of digital customs in the context of WCO legal instruments and best practices in customs regulation will have a positive effect on the rule-making activities of the Eurasian Economic Commission. So, let us proceed to the analysis.    

For the 75th meeting of the Policy Commission, held from July 11 to July 13, 2016, the WCO Secretariat prepared a draft of Customs Maturity model. In the previous paragraph, we noted that in order to form a digital customs institute, the Secretariat requested the international customs community to share best practices and innovations of Member countries in the development of this institute. A preliminary analysis of the practices exchanged by the WCO Member countries clearly shows that they do not all have the same level of development or the same access to ICT solutions. The survey, based on information provided by Member countries, showed that the introduction of ICT can take several years. Like many other strategic initiatives, the introduction of ICT, as the WCO Secretariat notes, is a journey that requires strong political will and constant leadership commitment. Senior executives should create an enabling environment for ICT projects. It also notes that the necessary organizational structures, management processes, management objectives and reporting channels should be clearly defined and implemented for project management.[1]

It is worth paying attention again to the fact that analyzing the issue of practical aspects of the implementation of the digital customs, we again observe the conceptual apparatus and approaches used in the field of ICT in the WCO materials. If the WCO Secretary General, in his address to deputy heads, mentions digital customs as a comprehensive, future-oriented concept, while seeking practical information on innovative digital programs, innovative solutions in digital customs, digital customs ICT, digital customs systems, then it is not entirely clear the content of the analytical note to the session of the Policy Commission with a focus on ICT implementation.

The main question is where is digital customs hidden in all this? And what is digital customs? If digital customs is a concept, a technical tool, a way of organizing the Customs service as well as a strategic approach to supporting customs and cross-border reform in the field of ICT (these approaches were listed previously at meetings of various WCO bodies — author’s note), then why only ICT are positioned in the working materials?

Returning to the issue of the WCO Digital Customs Maturity Model (hereinafter referred to as the Model, Maturity Model), we will state the position of the WCO Secretariat on this topic in more detail. According to the Secretariat, it is imperative that Customs administrations implement practical and measurable approaches that allow for the phased implementation and gradual consolidation of ICT systems, rather than trying the «big bang» approach. Taking into account national priorities, political considerations and the availability of resources, the Customs administration will have to prioritize and implement the proper sequence of implementation, consolidation of ICT in terms of the Digital maturity model.

 

Fig.1. A draft Digital Customs Maturity Model[2]

The draft Digital Customs Maturity Model, developed by the Secretariat on the basis of the implementation experience of the Member countries, is presented in Annex II to the WCO Secretariat Note of June 14, 2016 (Fig. 1).

For a scientist in scientific and practical research it is very important to follow the evolving logic of phenomena, events, and the formation of a conceptual apparatus inherent in a particular institution of customs regulation. And what do we observe? In the absence of the fundamental concept of digital customs, the official definition of digital customs, understanding of digital customs as a system and its competences, experts put forward the thesis of the need to introduce, consolidate ICT in terms of a digital maturity model. Again, what way a certain «digital maturity model», associated with ICT, relates to digital customs? Another question — what is a digital maturity model, what are its characteristics, features? And how does the digital maturity model differ from the digital customs maturity model? An equally important issue is the question of creating a digital maturity model only on the basis of responses from 21% of WCO Member states (39 Customs administrations). Is it possible to be sure that such a model fully takes into account the best practices of customs administration and international experience? In our opinion, before creating the concept of digital customs, a model of digital maturity or the preparation of recommendations, it is necessary to conduct a comprehensive research study. It is obvious that the scientific support of this grand and significant project for customs was not carried out.

The problem we faced while studying the WCO Digital Customs Maturity Model is the lack of explanatory, analytical (explanatory) notes to this model. In fact, we see a picture, a scheme called model. However, it is not clear for the external experts what means each stated model element in a single coordinate system. It is also not clear how it is related to the system of customs administration, other institutions of customs regulation, and also the WCO instruments. If we proceed from the fact that the model developed in the WCO should become a kind of reference, a model for the formation of

 

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the digital customs, then appropriate explanations and clarifications are needed, for example, those that are abundantly present when positioning the TFA Agreement and its implementation based on previously created WCO instruments. Otherwise, the WCO Member countries may in their own way interpret the picture (scheme) voiced at the 75th meeting of the Policy Commission.

Let us analyze the main elements of the Digital Customs Maturity Model.

The axis of ordinates of the model is called «vision» and is divided into 3 elements: Smart clearance; Efficient risk management; Effective control.

At the same time, the other axis parallel to the ordinate axis has no name and consists of 2 elements: data security and protection; business continuity plan.

The abscissa axis is called «maturity» and consists of 4 elements: digital strategy; legal basis; government structure; ICT infrastructure.

In the Maturity model there is no indication of the levels of maturity, development, movement of the Model (for example, level 1, level 2, level 3, etc.). At the same time, based on the figure of the Model, it can be assumed that such levels (maturity) are:1. initiate; 2. implement; 3. consolidate; 4. engage; 5. enhance; 6. embark. We pay special attention to the fact that there is no legend or explanation for each of the model elements. For example, what should be understood by the term «business continuity plan»; does this term mean a «digital customs business continuity plan» or something else? Accordingly, clarification requires the term «smart clearance», «effective control», etc.

It is worth noting that for each level of maturity, the maturity model chart contains a list of customs operations, actions, the result of actions, customs administration institutions, technology, method and software.

Level 1 «Initiate» includes: Data capture of transactions (customs operation, business process, technology); Website (instrument); Publication of information  (act); Office Automation (goal, process, element of plan implementation).

Level 2 «Implement»: Data Standardization (process, element of plan implementation); E-processing of declarations and clearance (customs operation, business process, technology); Dematerialization of supporting documents (goal, process, element of plan implementation).

Level 3 «Consolidate»: Advance electronic information (institute, instrument, technology); Data harmonization (goal, process, element of plan implementation); Pre-arrival processing (customs operation, business process, technology); Risk Management Systems (instrument, institute, technology); Post Clearance Audit (instrument, institute, method).

Level 4 «Engage»: e-CBM (concept, institution, instrument, customs administration mechanism, method, technology); Integration of e- services, e.g., Integrated Declaration (process, plan implementation element, technology); Integrated e-Payment System (system, tool, technology); Interactive services (services, result of action); Joint targeting/ Risk Management System (operation, action) / risk management system (institute, instrument, technology); Joint Inspection Management (mechanism, operation, act); mobile applications (software).

 

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Level 5 «Strengthen»: e-commerce solutions (?); Automated 24*7 clearance. (process, customs operation); Exchange of information with partner government agencies; Development of «single window» environment; Cross-border Exchange of information.

Level 6 «Embark»: Development of GNC Utility Blocks; Mutual Recognition; NII Image Interoperability; Inter-operability of «Single Windows»; Use of emerging technologies, e.g., drones.

In order to understand how correctly the Model is compiled and its compliance with the proposals, the positions of the WCO Member states related to the digital customs, we turn to management theory.

         In the framework of the 71st session of the Information Management Sub-Committee, held in Brussels on November 3 — 4, 2016, it was stated that during the relevant sessions in July 2016, the Policy Commission and the Council[4] considered and approved, in particular, the draft «Digital maturity model» with proposed improvements as a living document, which can be further enriched by the inclusion of such additional proposals and developments that can be provided by Member countries and relevant WCO working bodies. In addition, at the 213/214 sessions held in October 2016, the WCO Permanent Technical Committee discussed the «Maturity Model of Digital Customs» and presented several additional proposals for further enrichment of the maturity model. The updated Model was brought to the attention of the Sub-Committee delegates at the same meeting.[5]

         We need to note that the updated model doesn’t differ from the Digital Customs Maturity Model presented at the session of the Policy Commission from July 11 to July 13, 2016. The only change is on the x-axis, which is referred to as maturity, a new element «Skills set and competencies of personal» was added to the existing four elements.

         The issue of building a maturity model of an organization is directly related to business process management issues. The maturity model is a tool that allows the management of an organization to make such management more qualitative. Through the study of theoretical approaches to the construction of a model of maturity, we confirm our thesis that digital customs is, first of all, an organization with the infrastructure, business processes, technologies, including information and communication as well as human resources. Accordingly, the identification of digital customs only with ICT is a concept that does not take into account the multifunctionality and the complex nature of the digital customs institution.

         In the context of the analysis of the WCO Digital Customs Maturity Model, we turn to a number of scientific publications. Among the most noteworthy are the studies of Lykova A.I., Zaguskin N.N., Grubich T.Yu.Uzbekova A.M.

         So, Zaguskin N.N. notes that «any organization in the process of its development goes through certain stages (the so-called stages of transformational development) which are characterized by different strategic approaches, technologies, level of management culture, staff competence and other qualitative and quantitative characteristics. The transition to each next, higher stage of development is carried out by improving the performance of the organization with positive dynamics of key characteristics which makes it more competitive, dynamically responding to market demands and making optimal use of its internal resources».[6] The same author points out that «the stages of an organization’s transformational development are described depending on how consistent it is in observing common repetitive processes in the performance of work, in particular, on how the accumulated information is processed and used. Determining the maturity stage of the management system, corresponding to a certain stage of transformational development, helps to assess the organization’s potential, work out growth directions and organizational changes, and prioritize among the measures to further improve the activity».[7]

          To determine the organizational and technological development of the organization and its processes, the concept of maturity is applied. It is worth noting that a set of metrics are used to measure

 

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the state of a process, which represent certain characteristics. Miloslavskaya N.G. and Sagirov R.A. indicate that the evaluation of these metrics according to the established scale shows the state of the processes that will characterize the level of maturity.[8]

         Let’s consider the term «maturity». Exploring this term, Grubich T.Yu. gives the following definitions:

         company maturity is one of the stages of the company life cycle;[9]

         maturity of the processes shows how the activity is defined, controlled and effective, and the maturity model itself provides the basic management principles necessary for improving maturity.

         technological maturity of a company is the potential for further growth of technology excellence, criteria for evaluating potential suppliers by customers and an instrument for improving suppliers’ processes.

         maturity is a measure of reliability, efficiency and effectiveness of a process, function, organization, etc;[10]

         maturity of an employee of a company is the ability and willingness of an employee to make decisions and take responsibility;[11]

         maturity of a process is its ability to solve a given problem. For example, ISO 15504 proposes evaluating the maturity of processes based on the compliance of the reference model, in which the categories of processes and activities are highlighted;[12]

the term maturity is also applied to the information technologies of a company, to software development processes.[13]

         In this context, it can be assumed that the draft WCO Digital Customs Maturity Model has been prepared for customs information technology. At the same time, we do not claim that it is perfect, we only state a fact in relation to theoretical research.

         Depending on the maturity, all organizations can be divided into 2 types: (1) process-oriented; (2) project-oriented.

         It is necessary to add that to determine current state of project management as well as to develop a strategy for further development, maturity models are used — structured sets of elements that describe the properties of efficient processes. At the same time, Kharchenko O.A. and Gorchakova L.I. note, project management maturity models help assess project management processes that exist in the company as well as assess the development of the organization as a whole.[14]

Careful insight into the maturity model of the WCO digital customs and the above theory voiced a number of questions. The most important of them is which of the models recommended by the scientific expert community or the methodology was used by the WCO experts when developing the Digital Customs Maturity Model? What objects of maturity is the WCO model oriented to? How does it relate, for example, to ISO standards for maturity models, and what determines the absence of any explanations to the Model itself?

         Obviously, the problem is that the cited maturity models are being developed for organizations. In the understanding of the WCO digital customs is not an organization, but some kind of identification of ICT. Although neither the concept of the WCO Digital Customs, nor the WCO Work Program on Digital Customs provides a definition of the term «digital customs». And if we are talking about digital customs as a technology, then in this case it is appropriate to refer to the standards of maturity not for organizations, but for technologies. For example, the Russian Federation has developed a State Standard (GOST R 58048-2017 Technology Transfer. Guidelines for assessing the level of maturity of technologies).[15] In our case, the eternal question to be or not to be transformed into — so is this digital customs?

         In our opinion, we should talk about the creation of the Reference Model of Digital Customs, and not about the maturity model, which is not based on methodological approaches to the formation of such models.

          Our analysis of the WCO Digital Customs Maturity Model has raised a number of questions and positions. They are the following.

  1. Except in the title, the WCO Digital Customs Maturity Model does not use the term «digital customs». It should be noted that at the time of the preparation of the model in the framework of the WCO, there is no official definition of the term «digital customs».

 

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2. Nothing is known about the methodology and methodological approaches that were used by experts to prepare the draft WCO Digital Customs Maturity Model. Such a technique was not discussed in the working bodies of the World Customs Organization

3. The maturity model is a tool that allows executives of the organization to make management more qualitative. In the opinion of the Secretariat, the Customs administration should set priorities and implement the proper sequence of implementation, consolidation of ICT in terms of the digital maturity model. In other words, the maturity model should be viewed from the perspective of ICT development, rather than customs development which uses modern information technologies in the context of the digital revolution.

4.To date, there are no scientific and practical developments that reveal the term «digital maturity model». Accordingly, it is necessary to clarify what the model is and what its characteristics are. In the absence of a categorical apparatus as well as corresponding explanations that reveal this phenomenon, it is very difficult to understand what is the Digital Customs Maturity Model. In our opinion, it is not necessary to use the conceptual apparatus in an arbitrary form and create new legal constructions or phenomena based on concepts that have not yet been developed in science and practice.

         Thus, in the context of building e-customs in Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Russia, for example, the «e-maturity model» or «e-customs maturity model» is a matter of interest. The question is if this is the same as the digital maturity model and the digital customs maturity model?

  1. In accordance with the management theory, maturity models are developed for organizations (process-oriented and project-oriented). At the same time, in the WCO materials related to the development of digital customs, digital customs itself is actually identified with ICT. Accordingly, the proposed WCO Maturity Model does not fit into the classical understanding of the organization’s maturity model. This question requires clarification at least at a meeting of the WCO Information Management Sub-Committee.
  2. Maturity levels of Digital Customs Maturity Model should feature a different set of key characteristics. Among them there are the competence of digital customs, strategic approaches to customs administration (regulation), instruments, tools and technologies of customs administration (regulation), the level of management culture, staff competence and other qualitative and quantitative characteristics. In addition, the listed elements should have their own indicators.

         In addition, it is important to define the mission, values, strategy, and organizational structure for each level. Only in this case, the Head of the Customs administration will understand that there is a model of digital customs.

         In the presented Digital Customs Maturity Model it is not easy to single out the named elements and indicators are completely absent.

  1. The levels of maturity applied by experts to Digital Customs Maturity Modes (initiate, implement, consolidate, engage, enhance and embark) do not correspond to the classical maturity models, where these are: initial, repeatable, standardized, measurable, continuously improved, integrated.
  2. The applied conceptual apparatus in the Model can be interpreted differently by the WCO Member states. For example, «smart clearance», «e-commerce solution», «cross-border exchange of information», «e-border management», «mutual recognition» (results of customs control or legal status of an AEO? — author’s question), «interoperability of single window» etc.

         In our opinion, the Model should be accompanied by a descriptive part, where in the first positions it is important to pay attention to the applied conceptual apparatus.

  1. The Digital Customs Maturity Model should take into account the following requirements:
  • formalization, which provides an unambiguous description of the structure of the Digital Customs Maturity Model;
  • understandability by the Customs administrations of the WCO Member states based on the use of graphic means of displaying the model;
  • feasibility, implying the availability of means for the physical implementation of Digital Customs Maturity Model;
  • providing an assessment of the effectiveness of the implementation of the Digital Customs Maturity Model based on certain methods and calculated indicators.

         When the named requirements are met, the WCO Digital Customs Maturity Model which we analyze will be of interest to the WCO Customs administrations.

  1. The WCO Digital Customs Maturity Model does not allow to assess which customs law institutions, customs operations and business processes are covered by the digital customs. It can be distinguished in the truncated version of the Model, for example, the institute of electronic customs clearance, preliminary informing, risk management system, customs control after the release of goods, automatic release of goods.
  2. Digital Customs Maturity Model

         does not directly concern the institution of an authorized economic operator, a customs broker, customs transit, the provision of mutual administrative assistance, etc .;

         does not reflect such important digital customs institutions as the Internet of things, the WCO Data model, «single window», data security, Big data, data mining, etc .;

         does not cover modernization of customs regulation through the use of ICT, national customs enforcement network, capacity building development, advanced practice of customs regulation in the development of digital customs.

  1. To create a full-fledged WCO Digital Customs Maturity Model, it is necessary to take into account the specifics of the questions and proposals received from delegates at the 74th session of the WCO Policy Commission:
  • conceptual apparatus;
  • digitization of customs;
  • customs (customs administration) and digital customs;
  • management mechanism, customs administration in the context of the development of digital customs;
  • customs operations (business processes) in the framework of digital customs;
  • risk management system and digital customs;
  • subject composition of legal relations within the framework of digital customs;

 

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  • instruments used to ensure the functioning of digital customs;
  • technologies that promote the development of digital customs in the system of customs administration (regulation);
  • «single window» and digital customs, their relationship and correlation in the field of customs;
  • security supply chain of goods and the institution of an authorized economic operator;
  • regional integration and digital customs;
  • legal issues of organizing the operation of digital customs;
  • capacity building, personnel issues;
  • problematic issues of implementation of the digital customs institute;
  • the role of the World Customs Organization in the formation of the institution of digital customs.
  1. The study made it possible to come to the conclusion about the need to create a Reference Model of Digital Customs.

Other publications of the author

 

Sources used

  1. A draft Digital Customs Maturity Model. Annex II to Doc. SP0560E1a. // A Strategic Approach to Support ICT-enabled Customs and Cross-Border Regulatory Reform through WCO Tools, Instruments, and Guidelines. Digital Customs. Item XII on the Agenda.75th Session of the Policy Commission. Doc. SP0560E1a. Brussels, 14 June 2016.
  2. Strategic Approach to Support ICT-enabled Customs and Cross-Border Regulatory Reform through WCO Tools, Instruments, and Guidelines. Digital Customs. Item XII on the Agenda.75th Session of the Policy Commission. Doc. SP0560E1a. Brussels, 14 June 2016.
  3. Letter of the Secretary General № 16.SL-0034E. Brussels, 9 February 2016. Annex I to Doc. SP0560E1a // A Strategic Approach to Support ICT-enabled Customs and Cross-Border Regulatory Reform through WCO Tools, Instruments, and Guidelines. Digital Customs. Item XII on the Agenda.75th Session of the Policy Commission. Doc. SP0560E1a. Brussels, 14 June 2016.
  4. Minutes of the 127th / 128th Sessions of the Customs Cooperation Council (Brussels, 14-16 July 2016). Doc. SC0156E1a. Brussels, 16 August 2016.
  5. Digital Customs Maturity Model. (Item VI.a of the Agenda). 71th Meeting of the Information Management Sub-Committee (3 – 4 November 2016). Doc. PM0410E1a.  Brussels, 17 October 2016.
  6. WTO Agreement on trade facilitation. Annex to the Protocol amending the Marrakesh Agreement establishing the World Trade Organization. 15 July 2014. WT/L/931. URL: https://www.wto.org/English/Tratop_E/tradfa_e/tradfa_e.htm#II (date of the request: 05.04.2019).
  7. Armen Manukyan. WCO-UNESCAP 3rd UNNExT Masterclass: Digital Customs and Single Windows in the Context of WTO TFA Cheonan, 19-28 April 2017. URL: https://www.unescap.org/sites/default/files/27%20Apr%202017%20-%20WCO%20Globally%20Networked%20Customs.pdf (date of the request: 05.04.2019).
  8. Grubich T.Yu. The concept of maturity and a review of models for its assessment // Paradigms of modern science. – 2017. – № 4 (4). URL: https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=29676629 (date of the request: 08.04.2019).  
  9. Zaguskin N.N. Comparative characteristics of the maturity models of managing processes, projects, knowledge of the organization by the stages of their transformational development // Advances in modern natural science. – 2014. – № 1. – P.79. URL: https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=21052030 (date of the request: 08.04.2019).  
  10. Miloslavskaya N.G. and Sagirov R.A. Overview of maturity models of information security management processes // Information technology security. – 2015. – № 2. –Vol. 2. – P. 77. URL: https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=25284623 (date of the request: 09.04.2019).  
  11. Uzbekova A.M. Analysis of project management through maturity models // Scientific notes of young researchers. — 2017. — No. 4. URL: https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=30454199 (date of the request: 08.04.2019).  
  12. Kharchenko O.A., Gorchakova L.I. Analysis of project management maturity models on the example of Russian companies // Proceedings of a scientific forum with international participation. Engineering and Economics Institute. St. Petersburg Polytechnic University of Peter the Great, Engineering and Economics Institute; Responsible editors: О.V. Kalinina, S.V. Shirokova. 2015. – P. 323. URL: https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=25476647. (date of the request: 09.04.2019).  
  13. ГОСТ Р 58048-2017 Трансфер технологий. Методические указания по оценке уровня зрелости технологий (Technology transfer. Technology maturity assessment methodology guide). URL: http://docs.cntd.ru/document/1200158331 (date of the request: 10.04.2019).

[1] Item 18. A Strategic Approach to Support ICT-enabled Customs and Cross-Border Regulatory Reform through WCO Tools, Instruments, and Guidelines. Digital Customs. Item XII on the Agenda.75th Session of the Policy Commission. Doc. SP0560E1a. Brussels, 14 June 2016. – P. 5.

[2] A draft Digital Customs Maturity Model. Annex II to Doc. SP0560E1a. // A Strategic Approach to Support ICT-enabled Customs and Cross-Border Regulatory Reform through WCO Tools, Instruments, and Guidelines. Digital Customs. Item XII on the Agenda.75th Session of the Policy Commission. Doc. SP0560E1a. Brussels, 14 June 2016.

[3] A utility block can be defined as a functional subset of the Global Network of Customs, offering a tangible value proposition to Customs administrations by addressing specific needs through the exchange of information (See Armen Manukyan. WCO-UNESCAP 3rd UNNExT Masterclass: Digital Customs and Single Windows in the Context of WTO TFA Cheonan, 19-28 April 2017.  – Slide.8. URL: https://www.unescap.org/sites/default/files/27%20Apr%202017%20-%20WCO%20Globally%20Networked%20Customs.pdf (date of the request: 05.04.2019). 

[4] See Minutes of the 127th / 128th Sessions of the Customs Cooperation Council (Brussels, 14-16 July 2016). Doc. SC0156E1a. Brussels, 16 August 2016.

[5] Items 7-8. Digital Customs Maturity Model. (Item VI.a of the Agenda).  71th Meeting of the Information Management Sub-Committee (3 – 4 November 2016). Doc. PM0410E1a.  Brussels, 17 October 2016. – P.2.

[6] Zaguskin N.N. Comparative characteristics of the maturity models of managing processes, projects, knowledge of the organization by the stages of their transformational development // Advances in modern natural science. – 2014. – № 1. – P.78. URL: https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=21052030 (date of the request: 08.04.2019).       

[7]Ibid. – P.79.        

[8] Miloslavskaya N.G. and Sagirov R.A. Overview of maturity models of information security management processes // Information technology security. – 2015. – № 2. –Vol. 2. – P. 77. URL: https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=25284623 (date of the request: 09.04.2019).  

[9] In economics, there are four stages of the life cycle of the company. This creation, growth, maturity and decline (recession).

[10] The most mature processes and functions are formally aligned with the business objectives and strategy, and are supported by a system of continuous improvement.

[11] Grubich T.Yu. The concept of maturity and a review of models for its assessment // Paradigms of modern science. – 2017. – № 4 (4). – P. 61-62. URL: https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=29676629 (date of the request: 08.04.2019).  

[12] Ibid. – P. 68.

[13] Grubich T.Yu. The concept of maturity and a review of models for its assessment // Paradigms of modern science. – 2017. – № 4 (4). – P. 62. URL: https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=29676629 (date of the request: 08.04.2019).  

[14] Kharchenko O.A., Gorchakova L.I. Analysis of project management maturity models on the example of Russian companies // Proceedings of a scientific forum with international participation. Engineering and Economics Institute. St. Petersburg Polytechnic University of Peter the Great, Engineering and Economics Institute; Responsible editors: О.V. Kalinina, S.V. Shirokova. 2015. – P. 323. URL: https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=25476647 (date of the request: 09.04.2019).       

[15] ГОСТ Р 58048-2017 Трансфер технологий. Методические указания по оценке уровня зрелости технологий (Technology transfer. Technology maturity assessment methodology guide). URL: http://docs.cntd.ru/document/1200158331 (date of the request: 10.04.2019).